A new fluorescent anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy using PDD endoscope system™ and vitamin B2: evaluation in a clinical setting using living animal



Identification of intersegmental planes is essential for successful anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy. We have previously reported a new fluorescence technique using a PDD endoscope system™ and vitamin B2 for identification of intersegmental planes in ex vivo experiments. In the present study, we investigated and evolved this technique to perform ideal anatomic segmentectomy in a clinical setting using living pig models.


Cranial segmentectomy in the cranial lobe of the right lung was performed in six pigs using our fluorescence technique. The fluorescent cranial segmentectomy was as follows. After identification of the cranial segmental bronchus, vitamin B2 solution as a fluorescent substance was injected via bronchoscopy. The fluorescent segment was observed using a PDD endoscope system™, and the identified intersegmental plane was cut using electric cautery. The operative data collected were the rates of accurate identification of the pulmonary segment and perioperative complications. The duration and light intensity of fluorescence of the target segment were recorded to provide an objective measurement of success.


In all procedures, it was possible to identify the target segment by its clear yellow-green fluorescence. The rate of accurate identification of the pulmonary segment was 100 %. The fluorescence continued for more than 1 h with adequate light intensity. No perioperative complications were encountered. No unexpected injuries of the major segmental bronchi or vessels occurred. Hemorrhage and air leakage from the transected intersegmental plane were negligible.


Our new fluorescence technique in a clinical setting involving a PDD endoscope system™ vitamin B2 enabled accurate and safe anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy, with enough strong and long fluorescence in living pig lungs.

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Video-assisted thoracic surgery


Photodynamic diagnosis


Flavin adenine dinucleotide


Indocyanine green


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Masahiro Ohsima, Ryuichi Waseda, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Hideyasu Ueda, Akishi Ooi, and Isao Matsumoto have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Correspondence to Ryuichi Waseda.

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Ohsima, M., Waseda, R., Tanaka, N. et al. A new fluorescent anatomic pulmonary segmentectomy using PDD endoscope system™ and vitamin B2: evaluation in a clinical setting using living animal. Surg Endosc 30, 339–345 (2016) doi:10.1007/s00464-015-4194-x

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  • Pulmonary (lungs)
  • Surgical < technical
  • Thoracoscopy
  • Photodynamic theory