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Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 159–167 | Cite as

Feasibility, efficacy and safety of stent insertion as a palliative treatment for malignant strictures in the cervical segment of the esophagus and the hypopharynx

  • Giorgio Battaglia
  • Alessandro Antonello
  • Stefano Realdon
  • Francesco Cavallin
  • Francesca Giacomini
  • Sauid Ishaq
Article

Abstract

Background

50 % of esophageal cancers are inoperable at the time of diagnosis, and around 15 % involve the cervical esophagus. The hypopharynx is often involved by these malignancies as well. Palliation of cervical esophageal malignancies through stent insertion is considered limited due to technical challenges, poor patient tolerance and high complication rate. The aim of this study is to review our experience with stent insertion in the cervical segment of the esophagus and to evaluate outcome differences between stent insertions involving or sparing the hypopharynx.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed data on 69 consecutive patients that underwent stent insertion for malignant strictures in the cervical esophagus at our Department. Patients were divided according to involvement or sparing of the lower hypopharynx. Dysphagia severity was measured with the Mellow–Pinkas scale before the procedure and on monthly follow-ups. Any complication and its management were recorded. The main outcome parameters were as follows: dysphagia improvement, rate of successful dysphagia palliation (i.e., a reduction of the score to 0 or 1 after stent insertion) and complication rate. Multivariable analysis was carried out to assess the influence of patient- and procedure-related factors on the outcome of the procedure.

Results

Stent insertion was achieved in 100 % patients. At 4 weeks, dysphagia score improved from a median of 3–0 (p < 0.001), and a successful palliation was achieved in 76.8 % patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 14.5 %. Successful palliation throughout the follow-up was achieved in 72.9 % of the surviving patients. Complications occurred in 31.9 % patients. Dilation before stent insertion was associated with a less efficient short-term dysphagia palliation (OR 6.77, 95 % CI 1.46–31.29, p = 0.02).

Conclusions

Stent insertion is a safe and effective palliative treatment for malignant cervical esophageal strictures. Results are consistent even in patients with hypopharyngeal lesions. Dilation should be avoided before stent insertion.

Keywords

Esophageal neoplasms Esophageal sphincter, upper Palliative care Stents Endoscopy, gastrointestinal 

Notes

Disclosures

Giorgio Battaglia, Alessandro Antonello, Francesco Cavallin, Francesca Giacomini, Stefano Realdon and Sauid Ishaq declare that they have no conflict of interest or financial ties to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giorgio Battaglia
    • 1
  • Alessandro Antonello
    • 1
  • Stefano Realdon
    • 1
  • Francesco Cavallin
    • 2
  • Francesca Giacomini
    • 1
  • Sauid Ishaq
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Digestive Endoscopy UnitVeneto Institute of Oncology IOV - I.R.C.S.S.PaduaItaly
  2. 2.Surgical Oncology DepartmentVeneto Institute of Oncology IOV - I.R.C.S.S.PaduaItaly
  3. 3.Gastroenterology Department, Dudley Group HospitalsBirmingham City UniversityBirminghamUK
  4. 4.Department of MedicineSt. George’s UniversityGrenadaWest Indies

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