Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 723–733 | Cite as

The effect of duodenojejunostomy and sleeve gastrectomy on type 2 diabetes mellitus and gastrin secretion in Goto-Kakizaki rats

  • Eivind Grong
  • Ingerid Brænne Arbo
  • Ole Kristian Forstrønen Thu
  • Esther Kuhry
  • Bård Kulseng
  • Ronald Mårvik



Bariatric surgery is a highly effective treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with morbid obesity. The weight-loss independent improvement of glycemic control observed after these procedures has led to the discussion whether bariatric surgery can be introduced as treatment for type 2 diabetes in patients with a body mass index < 35 kg/m2. We have studied the effects of two bariatric procedures on type 2 diabetes and on gastrointestinal hormone secretion in a lean diabetic animal model.


Male Goto-Kakizaki rats, 17–18 weeks old, were randomized into three groups: duodenojejunostomy (DJ), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or sham operation. During 36 postoperative weeks we evaluated body weight, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, insulin, HbA1c, glucagon-like peptide 1, cholesterol parameters, triglycerides, total ghrelin, and gastrin.


Oral glucose tolerance was significantly improved for both DJ and SG at four weeks after surgery (p < 0.05). At the 34th postoperative week, SG had significantly lower area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test compared to sham (p = 0.007). SG had significantly lower HbA1c compared to sham at 12 weeks; (mean ± SEM) 4.3 ± 0.1 % versus 5.2 ± 0.3 % (p < 0.05) and compared to both DJ and sham 34 weeks after surgery [median (75 %;25 %)] 5.2 (6.0; 4.3) % versus 7.0 (7.5; 6.7) % and 7.3 (7.6; 6.7)  % (p = 0.009). Serum gastrin levels were markedly elevated for SG compared to DJ and sham; 188.0 (318.0; 121.0) versus 77.5 (114.0; 58.0) and 68.0 (90.0; 59.5) pmol/L (p = 0.004) at six weeks and 192.0 (587.8; 110.8) versus 65.5 (77.0; 59.0) and 69.5 (113.0; 55.5) (p = 0.001) 36 weeks after surgery.


Sleeve gastrectomy induces hypergastrinemia, lowers HbA1c, and improves glycemic control in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Sleeve gastrectomy is superior to duodenojejunostomy as treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in this animal model.


Duodenojejunostomy Sleeve gastrectomy Type 2 diabetes mellitus Gastrin Glucagon-like peptide 1 Goto-Kakizaki rat 



We would like to thank biomedical laboratory scientist (BLS) Britt Schulze for performing gastrin RIA analysis. We also want to thank BLS Kirsten Rønning for technical assistance and BLS Kristin Graven for performing lipid –and HbA1c analyses. Finally, we would like to thank all the personnel at Department for Comparative Medicine at NTNU for technical assistance and their devoted care for all our animals. This study has been supported by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), The Regional Center for Morbid Obesity (RSSO) and The National Center for Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery (NSALK), St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.


MS Eivind Grong, MSc Ingerid Brænne Arbo, MS Ole Kristian Forstrønen Thu, Dr. Esther Kuhry, Dr. Bård Kulseng and Dr. Ronald Mårvik have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eivind Grong
    • 1
  • Ingerid Brænne Arbo
    • 2
  • Ole Kristian Forstrønen Thu
    • 1
  • Esther Kuhry
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
  • Bård Kulseng
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ronald Mårvik
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of MedicineNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Faculty of MedicineNorwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway
  3. 3.Department of Gastrointestinal SurgerySt. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University HospitalTrondheimNorway
  4. 4.Regional Center for Morbid Obesity (RSSO)St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University HospitalTrondheimNorway
  5. 5.National Center for Advanced Laparoscopic Surgery (NSALK)St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University HospitalTrondheimNorway

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