The effect of duodenojejunostomy and sleeve gastrectomy on type 2 diabetes mellitus and gastrin secretion in Goto-Kakizaki rats
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Bariatric surgery is a highly effective treatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with morbid obesity. The weight-loss independent improvement of glycemic control observed after these procedures has led to the discussion whether bariatric surgery can be introduced as treatment for type 2 diabetes in patients with a body mass index < 35 kg/m2. We have studied the effects of two bariatric procedures on type 2 diabetes and on gastrointestinal hormone secretion in a lean diabetic animal model.
Male Goto-Kakizaki rats, 17–18 weeks old, were randomized into three groups: duodenojejunostomy (DJ), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or sham operation. During 36 postoperative weeks we evaluated body weight, fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, insulin, HbA1c, glucagon-like peptide 1, cholesterol parameters, triglycerides, total ghrelin, and gastrin.
Oral glucose tolerance was significantly improved for both DJ and SG at four weeks after surgery (p < 0.05). At the 34th postoperative week, SG had significantly lower area under the curve during oral glucose tolerance test compared to sham (p = 0.007). SG had significantly lower HbA1c compared to sham at 12 weeks; (mean ± SEM) 4.3 ± 0.1 % versus 5.2 ± 0.3 % (p < 0.05) and compared to both DJ and sham 34 weeks after surgery [median (75 %;25 %)] 5.2 (6.0; 4.3) % versus 7.0 (7.5; 6.7) % and 7.3 (7.6; 6.7) % (p = 0.009). Serum gastrin levels were markedly elevated for SG compared to DJ and sham; 188.0 (318.0; 121.0) versus 77.5 (114.0; 58.0) and 68.0 (90.0; 59.5) pmol/L (p = 0.004) at six weeks and 192.0 (587.8; 110.8) versus 65.5 (77.0; 59.0) and 69.5 (113.0; 55.5) (p = 0.001) 36 weeks after surgery.
Sleeve gastrectomy induces hypergastrinemia, lowers HbA1c, and improves glycemic control in Goto-Kakizaki rats. Sleeve gastrectomy is superior to duodenojejunostomy as treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in this animal model.