Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 28, Issue 12, pp 3451–3457 | Cite as

An audit of short- and long-term outcomes after laparoscopic removal of common bile duct stones in Finland

  • Anne Mattila
  • Jussi Luhtala
  • Johanna Mrena
  • Hannu Kautiainen
  • Ilmo Kellokumpu


Background and aim

To audit short- and long-term outcomes after laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) and factors influencing the success of the laparoscopic treatment.


From January 1999 to December 2011, 288 patients (93 males) underwent a single-stage laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined with LCBDE in two Finnish Hospitals. Short-term outcome data were collected prospectively. Long-term outcomes were examined retrospectively. The main measures of outcome were the success of laparoscopic CBD stone clearance and recurrence of CBD stones in the long-term, with 30-day mortality, morbidity, and the length of postoperative hospital stay as secondary outcome measures.


CBD stones were successfully removed by one-stage laparoscopic procedure in 232 of the 279 patients (83.2 %) with verified CBD stones and after conversion to open surgery in additional 28 patients (93.2 %). Nineteen patients (6.8 %) having residual stones after surgery were successfully treated with postoperative ERCP. On multivariate analysis, the independent factors associated with a failed laparoscopic stone clearance were stone size over 7 mm [OR 3.51 (95 % CI 1.53–8.03), p = 0.003], difficult anatomy [OR 18.01 (5.03–64.49), p < 0.001] and transcholedochal approach [OR 2.98 (1.37–4.47), p = 0.006]. Laparoscopic stone clearance also failed in all 11 patients having impacted stones at the ampulla of Vater. Cumulative long-term recurrence rate was 3.6 % at 5 years and 6.0 % at 10 years. Thirty-day mortality was 0.3 % and morbidity 12.2 %. Postoperative hospital stay was median 2 (IQR 1–3) days after transcystic CBD removal and 4 (IQR 3–7) days after transcholedochal CBD removal, p < 0.001.


Our results show that one-stage LC combined with LCBDE stone clearance is safe and effective in most patients thus reducing the number of additional, potentially dangerous endoscopic procedures. Moreover, large or impacted stones are a risk factor for failed stone clearance.


Laparoscopy Bile duct stone Choledochoscopy 



A Mattila, J Luhtala, J Mrena, I Kellokumpu and H Kautiainen have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Mattila
    • 1
  • Jussi Luhtala
    • 2
  • Johanna Mrena
    • 1
  • Hannu Kautiainen
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ilmo Kellokumpu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryCentral Hospital of Central FinlandJyväskyläFinland
  2. 2.Department of Surgery, Hyvinkää HospitalHospital District of Helsinki and UusimaaHyvinkääFinland
  3. 3.Department of General Practice, Primary Health Care UnitTurku University HospitalTurkuFinland
  4. 4.Department of Surgery, Unit of Primary Health CareHelsinki University HospitalHelsinkiFinland

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