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Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 27, Issue 12, pp 4449–4456 | Cite as

Effect of bariatric surgery on oncologic outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

  • May C. Tee
  • Yin Cao
  • Garth L. Warnock
  • Frank B. Hu
  • Jorge E. ChavarroEmail author
Review

Abstract

Background

Obesity is a major public health issue and is associated with increased risk of several cancers, currently a leading cause of mortality. Obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery may allow for evaluation of the effect of intentional excess weight loss on subsequent risk of cancer. We aimed to evaluate cancer risk, incidence, and mortality after bariatric surgery.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase with literature published from the inception of both databases to January 2012. Inclusion criteria incorporated all human studies examining oncologic outcomes after bariatric surgery. Two authors independently reviewed selected studies and relevant articles from their bibliographies for data extraction, quality appraisal, and meta-analysis.

Results

Six observational studies (n = 51,740) comparing relative risk (RR) of cancer in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery versus obese control subjects were analyzed. Overall, the RR of cancer in obese patients after undergoing bariatric surgery was 0.55 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.41–0.73, p < 0.0001, I 2 = 83 %]. The effect of bariatric surgery on cancer risk was modified by gender (p = 0.021). The pooled RR in women was 0.68 (95 % CI 0.60–0.77, p < 0.0001, I 2 < 0.1 %) and in men was 0.99 (95 % CI 0.74–1.32, p = 0.937, I 2 < 0.1 %).

Conclusions

Bariatric surgery reduces cancer risk and mortality in formerly obese patients. When stratifying the meta-analysis by gender, the effect of bariatric surgery on oncologic outcomes is protective in women but not in men.

Keywords

Bariatric surgery Cancer Oncology Meta-analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Carol Mita, reference librarian at the Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

Disclosures

Drs. Tee, Warnock, Hu, and Chavarro and Ms. Cao have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

Funding

Supported in part by grants 5P30DK46200-18 and U54CA155626-01 from the National Institutes of Health.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • May C. Tee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yin Cao
    • 3
    • 4
  • Garth L. Warnock
    • 2
  • Frank B. Hu
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jorge E. Chavarro
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.MPH ProgramHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Departments of Nutrition and EpidemiologyHarvard School of Public HealthBostonUSA
  4. 4.Channing Laboratory, Department of MedicineBrigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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