Laparoscopic bisegmentectomy 6 and 7 using a Glissonian approach and a half-Pringle maneuver
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Despite accumulated experience and advancing techniques for laparoscopic hepatectomy, surgeons still face challenging resections that require specific and innovative intraoperative maneuvers [1, 2, 3]. The right posterior sectionectomy presents special concerns about its location, the extensive transection area, and the difficult access to the pedicle [4, 5]. The intrahepatic Glissonian approach allows safe en masse control of the portal structures without prolonged dissection . Its association with the half-Pringle maneuver results in less bleeding during parenchymal transection [1, 6].
A 34-year-old woman was referred for treatment of an 8-cm hepatocellular adenoma located at segments 6 and 7. She was placed in a semi-supine position, and six ports were located in a distribution that resembled a Makuuchi incision. The right liver was mobilized, and preparation for an anatomic Glissonian approach was performed. A vascular clamp was placed to ensure that full control of the right posterior pedicle was possible. Then a vascular stapler replaced it, with division of the right posterior Glissonian pedicle. A vascular clamp was inserted from the inferior right-flank 5-mm trocar for performance of a half-Pringle maneuver of the right pedicle to minimize blood loss during parenchymal transection. The liver parenchyma was transected with a harmonic scalpel and a vascular stapler. The right hepatic vein was divided intraparenchymally with a vascular stapler. The specimen was extracted through a Pfannenstiel incision.
The total surgical time was 210 min, and the estimated blood loss was 200 ml. No blood transfusion was required. The recovery was uneventful, and hospital discharge occurred on postoperative day 5. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of an hepatocellular adenoma.
Technical issues initially hindered the development of laparoscopic liver resections [7, 8, 9, 10]. Surgeons were concerned about hemostasis, bleeding control, safe and effective parenchymal transection, adequate visualization, and the feasibility of working on deeper regions of the liver. During the past decade, many limitations were overcome, but lesions located on the posterosuperior liver are still considered tough to beat [5, 11]. Large series and extensive reviews [12, 13, 14] show that resections located on the posterior segments still are infrequent. Limited access to the portal triad, difficult pedicle control, and a large transection area and its anatomic location, attached to the diaphragm and retroperitoneum and hidden from the surgeon’s view, makes such resections defying. The authors’ team has performed 97 laparoscopic hepatectomies, including resection of 6 lesions in the right posterior sector. In their series, half-pedicle clamping was used for 12 patients, and they adopt such a maneuver as an inflow control when operating on peripheric lesions with difficult vascular control (e.g., enucleations or posterosuperiorly located segmentectomies). This technique is safe and useful because it reduces liver ischemic aggression, a very important issue with diseased livers (e.g., steatosis, steatohepatitis, prolonged chemotherapy, cirrhosis) [6, 15]. In their series, the authors applied the Glissonian intrahepatic approach in 7 cases (2 left hepatectomies and 5 right hepatectomies). They understand that laparoscopy applies perfectly to oddly (posterosuperior) located tumors and that right posterior sectionectomy can be accomplished safely. In fact, they share the opinion of other specialized hepatobiliary centers, believing that this may be the preferred approach .
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