3-D endoscope using a single CCD camera and pneumatic vibration mechanism
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During endoscopic surgical procedures, surgeons must manipulate an endoscope inside the body cavity to observe a surgical area while estimating the distance between that area and the surgical instruments by reference to a monitor on which the movement and size of the surgical instruments are displayed in 2-D endoscopic images. Therefore, there is a risk of the endoscope or instruments physically damaging body tissues. To overcome this problem, we developed a Ø5-mm, 3-D endoscope using a single 1/10-inch CCD camera and pneumatic vibration mechanism.
The 3-D endoscope proposed in this paper consists of an outer and inner sleeve, a 1/10-inch CCD camera attached to its distal end, and a pneumatic vibration mechanism attached to its proximal end. This endoscope can acquire left and right endoscopic images for stereovision in synchrony with the periodical motion generated by the vibration mechanism. We measured the displacement at the proximal and distal end of the 3-D endoscope simultaneously, and evaluated the feasibility of its use in vivo.
The displacement at the distal end of the endoscope to which the CCD camera is attached was approximately ±0.25 mm. The timing when the displacement of the CCD camera was at maximal amplitude coincided with the timing when the displacement of its proximal end was at maximal amplitude. In the in vivo experiment, this 3-D endoscope can provide clear 3-D images of the surgical area.
The developed 3-D endoscope that uses a single CCD camera and pneumatic vibration mechanism can successfully visualize internal organs inside the body even though the CCD camera is moved by the vibration. Therefore, the risk of damage to fragile body tissues can be significantly decreased.
Keywords3-D endoscope Pneumatic Vibration Single camera Minimally invasive surgery
The authors thank Dr. Tomikawa and Dr. Ieiri (Kyushu University) for their expert help during the in vivo experiment. This work was supported by a Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan (22240061), and a Grant-in-aid for Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Fellows (22·8857).
Hiroki Kamiuchi, Kenta Kuwana, Tsuneo Fukuyo, Hiromasa Yamashita, Toshio Chiba, Takeyoshi Dohi, and Ken Masamune have no conflicts of interests or financial ties to disclose.
Supplementary material 1 (WMV 39494 kb)
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