Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 26, Issue 12, pp 3486–3494 | Cite as

Significant transfer of surgical skills obtained with an advanced laparoscopic training program to a laparoscopic jejunojejunostomy in a live porcine model: feasibility of learning advanced laparoscopy in a general surgery residency

  • Julián Varas
  • Ricardo Mejía
  • Arnoldo Riquelme
  • Felipe Maluenda
  • Erwin Buckel
  • José Salinas
  • Jorge Martínez
  • Rajesh Aggarwal
  • Nicolás Jarufe
  • Camilo Boza



Simulation may provide a solution to acquire advanced laparoscopic skills, thereby completing the curriculum of residency programs in general surgery. This study was designed to present an advanced simulation-training program and to assess the transfer of skills to a live porcine model.


First-year residents were assessed in a 14-session advanced laparoscopic training program followed by performing a jejunojejunostomy in a live porcine model. Previous and after training assessments at the bench model were compared to a single performance of six expert laparoscopic surgeons. Results obtained by trainees at the porcine model assessment were compared to those of 11 general surgeons without any laparoscopic lab-simulation training and 6 expert laparoscopic surgeons. In all assessments, global and specific OSATS scores, operative time, and covered path length of hands were registered.


Twenty-five residents improved significantly their global and specific OSATS score median at the bench model [7 (range, 6–11) vs. 23 (range, 21–24); p < 0.05 and 7 (range, 4–8) vs. 18 (range, 18–19); p < 0.05, respectively] and obtained significantly better scores on the porcine model compared with general surgeons with no lab-simulation training [21 (range, 20.5–21) vs. 8 (range, 12–14); p < 0.05]. The results were comparable to those achieved by expert certificated bariatric surgeons. Total path lengths registered for trainees were more efficient post-training and significantly lower compared with general surgeons on the porcine model [7 (range, 6–11) vs. 23 (range, 21–24); p < 0.05] with no statistical difference compared with experts.


Trainees significantly improved their advanced laparoscopic skills to a level compared with expert surgeons. More importantly, these acquired skills were transferred to a more complex live model.


Training/courses Simulation Advanced laparoscopy Education Laparoscopic training Surgery 



The Department of Digestive Surgery financed this work and it was partially supported by grants of the National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research (CONICYT), FONDECYT No. 1100436 to A.R. The authors thank Oslando Padilla for his support with the statistical analysis of the data.


The authors report no conflict of interest. The authors are responsible for the content and writing of the article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julián Varas
    • 1
  • Ricardo Mejía
    • 1
  • Arnoldo Riquelme
    • 2
  • Felipe Maluenda
    • 1
  • Erwin Buckel
    • 1
  • José Salinas
    • 1
  • Jorge Martínez
    • 1
  • Rajesh Aggarwal
    • 3
  • Nicolás Jarufe
    • 1
  • Camilo Boza
    • 1
  1. 1.Experimental Surgery Simulation Center, Department of Digestive Surgery, Hospital Clínico, Faculty of MedicinePontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Department of Gastroenterology and Centre for Medical Education, Faculty of MedicinePontificia Universidad Católica de ChileSantiagoChile
  3. 3.Department of Biosurgery and Surgical TechnologyImperial CollegeLondonUK

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