The role of laparoscopy in the management of acute small-bowel obstruction: a review of over 2,000 cases
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Adhesive small-bowel obstruction (SBO) contributes significantly to emergency surgical workload. Laparotomy remains the standard approach. Despite published reports with high success rates and low morbidity, acute SBO is still considered by many a relative contraindication to laparoscopy. Our aim was to review the available literature and define important outcomes such as feasibility, safety, iatrogenic bowel injury, and benefits to patients with acute SBO who are approached laparoscopically.
A systematic literature search was carried out using the Medline database and the search terms “laparoscopy” or “laparoscopic approach” and “bowel obstruction.” Only adult studies published in English between 1990 and 2010 were included. Studies were excluded if data specific to outcomes for laparoscopic management of acute SBO could not be extracted.
Twenty-nine studies were identified. A laparoscopic approach was attempted in 2,005 patients with acute SBO. Adhesions were the most common etiology (84.9%). Laparoscopy was completed in 1,284 cases (64%), 6.7% were lap-assisted, and 0.3% were converted to hernia repair. The overall conversion rate to midline laparotomy was 29% (580/2,005). Dense adhesions, bowel resection, unidentified pathology, and iatrogenic injury accounted for the majority of conversions. When the etiology of SBO was a single-band adhesion, the success rate was 73.4%. Morbidity was 14.8% (283/1,906) and mortality was 1.5% (29/1,951). The enterotomy rate was 6.6% (110/1,673). The majority were recognized and converted to laparotomy. Laparoscopy was associated with reduced morbidity and length of stay.
Laparoscopy is a feasible and effective treatment for acute SBO with acceptable morbidity. Further studies are required to determine its impact on recurrent SBO.
KeywordsBowel Abdominal A&E Complications Adhesions Surgical
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