Advertisement

Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 25, Issue 7, pp 2084–2099 | Cite as

Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy: a UK experience and a systematic review of the literature

  • Basil J. Ammori
  • Georgios D. Ayiomamitis
Review

Abstract

Background

Advances in operative techniques and technology have facilitated laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) and laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy (LPD).

Methods

All distal pancreatectomies were attempted laparoscopically, while selected patients underwent LPD. The literature was systematically reviewed.

Results

Between 2002 and 2008, 21 patients underwent LDP (n = 14) or LPD (n = 7). The mean operating time, blood loss, and hospital stay after LDP were 265 min, 262 ml, and 7.7 days, respectively, and after LPD they were 628 min, 350 ml, and 11.1 days, respectively. The conversion, morbidity, pancreatic fistula, readmission, reoperation, and mortality after LDP were 7.1, 35.7, 28.4, 28.4, 0, and 7.1% respectively, and after LPD they were 0, 28.6, 14.3, 28.6, 0, and 0% respectively. The literature review identified 987 LDP and 126 LPD. Most LDP were for benign disease (83.9%) while most LPD were for malignancy (91.5%). The mean operating time, morbidity, pancreatic fistula, mortality, and hospital stay after LDP were 221.5 min, 24.7%, 16.4%, 0.4%, and 7.7 days, respectively, and after LPD they were 448.3 min, 28.6%, 11.6%, 2.1%, and 16 days, respectively.

Conclusion

LDP, particularly for benign disease and low-grade malignancy, is increasingly becoming the gold standard approach in experienced hands. In selected patients, LPD is feasible and safe. Long-term follow-up data are needed.

Keywords

Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy Pancreatoduodenectomy Pancreatic fistula Left pancreatectomy Splenectomy Whipple procedure Pancreaticoduodenectomy Splenopancreatectomy 

Notes

Disclosures

Mr. Basil J Ammori and Dr. Georgios D. Ayiomamitis have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.

References

  1. 1.
    Sa Cuhna A, Rault A, Beau C, Laurent C, Collet D, Masson B (2008) A single-institution prospective study of laparoscopic pancreatic resection. Arch Surg 143:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ammori BJ (2003) Pancreatic surgery in the laparoscopic era. JOP 4:187–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mabrut JY, Fernandez-Cruz L, Azagra JS, Bassi C, Delvaux G, Weerts J, Fabre JM, Boulez J, Baulieux J, Peix JL, Gigot JF (2005) Laparoscopic pancreatic resection: results of a multicenter European study of 127 patients. Surgery 137:597–605PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fernandez-Cruz L, Saenz A, Astudillo E, Martinez I, Hoyos S, Pantoja JP, Navarro S (2002) Outcome of laparoscopic pancreatic surgery: endocrine and nonendocrine tumors. World J Surg 26:1057–1065PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fernandez-Cruz L, Herrera M, Saenz A, Pantoja JP, Astudillo E, Sierra M (2001) Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery in patients with neuroendocrine tumours: indications and limits. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 15:161–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dulucq JL, Wintringer P, Stabilini C, Feryn T, Perissat J, Mahajna A (2005) Are major laparoscopic pancreatic resections worthwhile? A prospective study of 32 patients in a single institution. Surg Endosc 19:1028–1034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pugliese R, Scandroglio I, Sansonna F, Maggioni D, Costanzi A, Citterio D, Ferrari GC, Di Lernia S, Magistro C (2008) Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy: a retrospective review of 19 cases. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 18:13–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gagner M, Pomp A, Herrera MF (1996) Early experience with laparoscopic resections of islet cell tumors. Surgery 120:1051–1054PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernandez-Cruz L, Martinez I, Cesar-Borges G, Astudillo E, Orduna D, Halperin I, Sesmilo G, Puig M (2005) Laparoscopic surgery in patients with sporadic and multiple insulinomas associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. J Gastrointest Surg 9:381–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ayav A, Bresler L, Brunaud L, Boissel P (2005) Laparoscopic approach for solitary insulinoma: a multicentre study. Langenbecks Arch Surg 390:134–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ammori BJ, El Dhuwaib Y, Ballester P, Augustine T (2005) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Hepatogastroenterology 52:620–624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gagner M, Pomp A (1994) Laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Surg Endosc 8:408–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gentileschi P, Gagner M (2001) Laparoscopic pancreatic resection. Chir Ital 53:279–289PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gagner M, Gentileschi P (2001) Hand-assisted laparoscopic pancreatic resection. Semin Laparosc Surg 8:114–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ammori BJ (2004) Laparoscopic hand-assisted pancreaticoduodenectomy: initial UK experience. Surg Endosc 18:717–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kimura Y, Hirata K, Mukaiya M, Mizuguchi T, Koito K, Katsuramaki T (2005) Hand-assisted laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreas head disease. Am J Surg 189:734–737PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Menon KV, Hayden JD, Prasad KR, Verbeke CS (2007) Total laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy and reconstruction for a cholangiocarcinoma of the bile duct. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 17:775–780PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palanivelu C, Jani K, Senthilnathan P, Parthasarathi R, Rajapandian S, Madhankumar MV (2007) Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy: technique and outcomes. J Am Coll Surg 205:222–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Warshaw AL (1988) Conservation of the spleen with distal pancreatectomy. Arch Surg 123:550–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cunningham AJ (1994) Laparoscopic surgery—anesthetic implications. Surg Endosc 8:1272–1284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dulucq JL, Wintringer P, Mahajna A (2006) Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy for benign and malignant diseases. Surg Endosc 20:1045–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bassi C, Dervenis C, Butturini G, Fingerhut A, Yeo C, Izbicki J, Neoptolemos J, Sarr M, Traverso W, Buchler M (2005) Postoperative pancreatic fistula: an international study group (ISGPF) definition. Surgery 138:8–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Velanovich V (2006) Case-control comparison of laparoscopic versus open distal pancreatectomy. J Gastrointest Surg 10:95–98PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kooby DA, Gillespie T, Bentrem D, Nakeeb A, Schmidt MC, Merchant NB, Parikh AA, Martin RC, Scoggins CR, Ahmad S, Kim HJ, Park J, Johnston F, Strouch MJ, Menze A, Rymer J, McClaine R, Strasberg SM, Talamonti MS, Staley CA, McMasters KM, Lowy AM, Byrd-Sellers J, Wood WC, Hawkins WG (2007) Left-sided pancreatectomy: a multicenter comparison of laparoscopic and open approaches. Ann Surg 248:438–446Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Teh SH, Tseng D, Sheppard BC (2007) Laparoscopic and open distal pancreatic resection for benign pancreatic disease. J Gastrointest Surg 11:1120–1125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, Lillemoe KD, Sohn TA, Campbell KA, Sauter PK, Coleman J, Abrams RA, Hruban RH (2002) Pancreaticoduodenectomy with or without distal gastrectomy and extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma, part 2: randomized controlled trial evaluating survival, morbidity, and mortality. Ann Surg 236:355–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schmidt CM, Powell ES, Yiannoutsos CT, Howard TJ, Wiebke EA, Wiesenauer CA, Baumgardner JA, Cummings OW, Jacobson LE, Broadie TA, Canal DF, Goulet RJ Jr, Curie EA, Cardenes H, Watkins JM, Loehrer PJ, Lillemoe KD, Madura JA (2004) Pancreaticoduodenectomy: a 20-year experience in 516 patients. Arch Surg 139:718–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sohn TA, Yeo CJ, Cameron JL, Koniaris L, Kaushal S, Abrams RA, Sauter PK, Coleman J, Hruban RH, Lillemoe KD (2000) Resected adenocarcinoma of the pancreas-616 patients: results, outcomes, and prognostic indicators. J Gastrointest Surg 4:567–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kim SC, Park KT, Hwang JW, Shin HC, Lee SS, Seo DW, Lee SK, Kim MH, Han DJ (2008) Comparative analysis of clinical outcomes for laparoscopic distal pancreatic resection and open distal pancreatic resection at a single institution. Surg Endosc 22:2261–2268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Patterson EJ, Gagner M, Salky B, Inabnet WB, Brower S, Edye M, Gurland B, Reiner M, Pertsemlides D (2001) Laparoscopic pancreatic resection: single-institution experience of 19 patients. J Am Coll Surg 193:281–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gouillat C, Gigot JF (2001) Pancreatic surgical complications—the case for prophylaxis. Gut 49(Suppl 4):iv32–iv39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ohwada S, Ogawa T, Tanahashi Y, Nakamura S, Takeyoshi I, Ohya T, Ikeya T, Kawashima K, Kawashima Y, Morishita Y (1998) Fibrin glue sandwich prevents pancreatic fistula following distal pancreatectomy. World J Surg 22:494–498PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Iihara M, Kanbe M, Okamoto T, Ito Y, Obara T (2001) Laparoscopic ultrasonography for resection of insulinomas. Surgery 130:1086–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bilimoria MM, Cormier JN, Mun Y, Lee JE, Evans DB, Pisters PW (2003) Pancreatic leak after left pancreatectomy is reduced following main pancreatic duct ligation. Br J Surg 90:190–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lillemoe KD, Kaushal S, Cameron JL, Sohn TA, Pitt HA, Yeo CJ (1999) Distal pancreatectomy: indications and outcomes in 235 patients. Ann Surg 229:693–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kiely JM, Nakeeb A, Komorowski RA, Wilson SD, Pitt HA (2003) Cystic pancreatic neoplasms: enucleate or resect? J Gastrointest Surg 7:890–897PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Farnell MB, Pearson RK, Sarr MG, DiMagno EP, Burgart LJ, Dahl TR, Foster N, Sargent DJ (2005) A prospective randomized trial comparing standard pancreatoduodenectomy with pancreatoduodenectomy with extended lymphadenectomy in resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. Surgery 138:618–628PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pedrazzoli S, DiCarlo V, Dionigi R, Mosca F, Pederzoli P, Pasquali C, Kloppel G, Dhaene K, Michelassi F (1998) Standard versus extended lymphadenectomy associated with pancreatoduodenectomy in the surgical treatment of adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas: a multicenter, prospective, randomized study. Lymphadenectomy Study Group. Ann Surg 228:508–517PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gagner M, Pomp A (1997) Laparoscopic pancreatic resection: Is it worthwhile? J Gastrointest Surg 1:20–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berends FJ, Cuesta MA, Kazemier G, van Eijck CH, de Herder WW, van Muiswinkel JM, Bruining HA, Bonjer HJ (2000) Laparoscopic detection and resection of insulinomas. Surgery 128:386–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chapuis Y, Bigourdan JM, Massault PP, Pitre J, Palazzo L (1998) Videolaparoscopic excision of insulinoma. A study of 5 cases. Chirurgie 123:461–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Noone TC, Hosey J, Firat Z, Semelka RC (2005) Imaging and localization of islet-cell tumours of the pancreas on CT and MRI. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 19:195–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Saga T, Shimatsu A, Koizumi K, Ichikawa T, Yamamoto K, Noguchi S, Doi R, Ishibashi M, Machinami R, Nakamura K, Sakahara H, Endo K (2005) Morphological imaging in the localization of neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumors found by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Acta Radiol 46:227–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Anderson MA, Carpenter S, Thompson NW, Nostrant TT, Elta GH, Scheiman JM (2000) Endoscopic ultrasound is highly accurate and directs management in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Am J Gastroenterol 95:2271–2277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hashimoto LA, Walsh RM (1999) Preoperative localization of insulinomas is not necessary. J Am Coll Surg 189:368–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Fernandez-Cruz L, Saenz A, Astudillo E, Pantoja JP, Uzcategui E, Navarro S (2002) Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Surg Endosc 16:996–1003PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Finan KR, Cannon EE, Kim EJ, Wesley MM, Arnoletti PJ, Heslin MJ, Christein JD (2009) Laparoscopic and open distal pancreatectomy: a comparison of outcomes. Am Surg 75:671–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rodriguez JR, Madanat MG, Healy BC, Thayer SP, Warshaw AL, Fernandez-del Castillo C (2007) Distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation revisited. Surgery 141:619–625PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kleeff J, Diener MK, Z’graggen K, Hinz U, Wagner M, Bachmann J, Zehetner J, Muller MW, Friess H, Buchler MW (2007) Distal pancreatectomy: risk factors for surgical failure in 302 consecutive cases. Ann Surg 245:573–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Shoup M, Brennan MF, McWhite K, Leung DH, Klimstra D, Conlon KC (2002) The value of splenic preservation with distal pancreatectomy. Arch Surg 137:164–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pannegeon V, Pessaux P, Sauvanet A, Vullierme MP, Kianmanesh R, Belghiti J (2006) Pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy: predictive risk factors and value of conservative treatment. Arch Surg 141:1071–1076PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Carrere N, Abid S, Julio CH, Bloom E, Pradere B (2007) Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with excision of splenic artery and vein: a case-matched comparison with conventional distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. World J Surg 31:375–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Mohebati A, Schwarz RE (2008) Extended left-sided pancreatectomy with spleen preservation. J Surg Oncol 97:150–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fernandez-Cruz L, Martinez I, Gilabert R, Cesar-Borges G, Astudillo E, Navarro S (2004) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy combined with preservation of the spleen for cystic neoplasms of the pancreas. J Gastrointest Surg 8:493–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Benoist S, Dugue L, Sauvanet A, Valverde A, Mauvais F, Paye F, Farges O, Belghiti J (1999) Is there a role of preservation of the spleen in distal pancreatectomy? J Am Coll Surg 188:255–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Berger AC, Watson JC, Ross EA, Hoffman JP (2004) The metastatic/examined lymph node ratio is an important prognostic factor after pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Am Surg 70:235–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Riall TS, Cameron JL, Lillemoe KD, Campbell KA, Sauter PK, Coleman J, Abrams RA, Laheru D, Hruban RH, Yeo CJ (2005) Pancreaticoduodenectomy with or without distal gastrectomy and extended retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma—part 3: update on 5-year survival. J Gastrointest Surg 9:1191–1204PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fernandez-Cruz L, Cosa R, Blanco L, Levi S, Lopez-Boado MA, Navarro S (2007) Curative laparoscopic resection for pancreatic neoplasms: a critical analysis from a single institution. J Gastrointest Surg 11:1607–1621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cuschieri SA, Jakimowicz JJ (1998) Laparoscopic pancreatic resections. Semin Laparosc Surg 5:168–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vezakis A, Davides D, Larvin M, McMahon MJ (1999) Laparoscopic surgery combined with preservation of the spleen for distal pancreatic tumors. Surg Endosc 13:26–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Mahon D, Allen E, Rhodes M (2002) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. Three cases of insulinoma. Surg Endosc 16:700–702PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Park AE, Heniford BT (2002) Therapeutic laparoscopy of the pancreas. Ann Surg 236:149–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fabre JM, Dulucq JL, Vacher C, Lemoine MC, Wintringer P, Nocca D, Burgel JS, Domergue J (2002) Is laparoscopic left pancreatic resection justified? Surg Endosc 16:1358–1361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gramatica L Jr, Herrera MF, Mercado-Luna A, Sierra M, Verasay G, Brunner N (2002) Videolaparoscopic resection of insulinomas: experience in two institutions. World J Surg 26:1297–1300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Tagaya N, Kasama K, Suzuki N, Taketsuka S, Horie K, Furihata M, Kubota K (2003) Laparoscopic resection of the pancreas and review of the literature. Surg Endosc 17:201–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Van Nieuwenhove Y, Vandaele S, Op dB, Delvaux G (2003) Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas. Surg Endosc 17:1658–1662PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Assalia A, Gagner M (2004) Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery for islet cell tumors of the pancreas. World J Surg 28:1239–1247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lo CY, Chan WF, Lo CM, Fan ST, Tam PK (2004) Surgical treatment of pancreatic insulinomas in the era of laparoscopy. Surg Endosc 18:297–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Shimizu S, Tanaka M, Konomi H, Mizumoto K, Yamaguchi K (2004) Laparoscopic pancreatic surgery: current indications and surgical results. Surg Endosc 18:402–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Edwin B, Mala T, Mathisen O, Gladhaug I, Buanes T, Lunde OC, Soreide O, Bergan A, Fosse E (2004) Laparoscopic resection of the pancreas: a feasibility study of the short-term outcome. Surg Endosc 18:407–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lebedyev A, Zmora O, Kuriansky J, Rosin D, Khaikin M, Shabtai M, Ayalon A (2004) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. Surg Endosc 18:1427–1430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Root J, Nguyen N, Jones B, McCloud S, Lee J, Nguyen P, Chang K, Lin P, Imagawa D (2005) Laparoscopic distal pancreatic resection. Am Surg 71:744–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Han HS, Min SK, Lee HK, Kim SW, Park YH (2005) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with preservation of the spleen and splenic vessels for benign pancreas neoplasm. Surg Endosc 19:1367–1369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    D’Angelica M, Are C, Jarnagin W, DeGregoris G, Coit D, Jaques D, Brennan M, Fong Y (2006) Initial experience with hand-assisted laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy. Surg Endosc 20:142–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Giger U, Michel JM, Wiesli P, Schmid C, Krahenbuhl L (2006) Laparoscopic surgery for benign lesions of the pancreas. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 16:452–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Uranues S, Alimoglu O, Todoric B, Toprak N, Auer T, Rondon L, Sauseng G, Pfeifer J (2006) Laparoscopic resection of the pancreatic tail with splenic preservation. Am J Surg 192:257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Corcione F, Marzano E, Cuccurullo D, Caracino V, Pirozzi F, Settembre A (2006) Distal pancreas surgery: outcome for 19 cases managed with a laparoscopic approach. Surg Endosc 20:1729–1732PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Toniato A, Meduri F, Foletto M, Avogaro A, Pelizzo M (2006) Laparoscopic treatment of benign insulinomas localized in the body and tail of the pancreas: a single-center experience. World J Surg 30:1916–1919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Tang CN, Tsui KK, Ha JP, Wong DC, Li MK (2007) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: a comparative study. Hepatogastroenterology 54:265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pierce RA, Spitler JA, Hawkins WG, Strasberg SM, Linehan DC, Halpin VJ, Eagon JC, Brunt LM, Frisella MM, Matthews BD (2007) Outcomes analysis of laparoscopic resection of pancreatic neoplasms. Surg Endosc 21:579–586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pryor A, Means JR, Pappas TN (2007) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenic preservation. Surg Endosc 21:2326–2330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Melotti G, Butturini G, Piccoli M, Casetti L, Bassi C, Mullineris B, Lazzaretti MG, Pederzoli P (2007) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: results on a consecutive series of 58 patients. Ann Surg 246:77–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Palanivelu C, Shetty R, Jani K, Sendhilkumar K, Rajan PS, Maheshkumar GS (2007) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: results of a prospective non-randomized study from a tertiary center. Surg Endosc 21:373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Kang CM, Kim HG, Kim KS, Choi JS, Lee WJ, Kim BR (2007) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas—report of two cases. Hepatogastroenterology 54:1053–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pugliese R, Boniardi M, Sansonna F, Maggioni D, Scandroglio I, Costanzi A, Rapetti R, Oppizzi G, Loli P (2008) Video-laparoscopic excision of pancreatic insulinoma. Experience with 3 cases. Chir Ital 60:9–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Casadei R, Ricci C, Zanini N, Marrano N, Pezzilli R, Minni F (2008) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy in non-malignant pancreatic tumors. JOP 9:71–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gumbs AA, Gres P, Madureira FA, Gayet B (2008) Laparoscopic vs. open resection of noninvasive intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasms. J Gastrointest Surg 12:707–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Laxa BU, Carbonell AM, Cobb WS, Rosen MJ, Hardacre JM, Mekeel KL, Harold KL (2008) Laparoscopic and hand-assisted distal pancreatectomy. Am Surg 74:481–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Matsumoto T, Shibata K, Ohta M, Iwaki K, Uchida H, Yada K, Mori M, Kitano S (2008) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy and open distal pancreatectomy: a nonrandomized comparative study. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 18:340–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Bruzoni M, Sasson AR (2008) Open and laparoscopic spleen-preserving, splenic vessel-preserving distal pancreatectomy: indications and outcomes. J Gastrointest Surg 12:1202–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Taylor C, O’Rourke N, Nathanson L, Martin I, Hopkins G, Layani L, Ghusn M, Fielding G (2008) Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: the Brisbane experience of forty-six cases. HPB (Oxford) 10:38–42Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Sasaki A, Nitta H, Nakajima J, Obuchi T, Baba S, Wakabayashi G (2008) Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with conservation of the splenic artery and vein: report of three cases. Surg Today 38:955–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Cuschieri A (1994) Laparoscopic surgery of the pancreas. J R Coll Surg Edinb 39:178–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Staudacher C, Orsenigo E, Baccari P, Di Palo S, Crippa S (2005) Laparoscopic assisted duodenopancreatectomy. Surg Endosc 19:352–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zheng MH, Feng B, Lu AG, Li JW, Hu WG, Wang ML, Zang L, Dong F, Mao ZH, Peng YF, Jiang Y (2006) Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy for ductal adenocarcinoma of common bile duct: a case report and literature review. Med Sci Monit 12:CS57–CS60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lu B, Cai X, Lu W, Huang Y, Jin X (2006) Laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy to treat cancer of the ampulla of Vater. JSLS 10:97–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Cai X, Wang Y, Yu H, Liang X, Xu B, Peng S (2008) Completed laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy. Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 18:404–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary SurgeryNorth Manchester General HospitalManchesterUK
  2. 2.Manchester Royal InfirmaryManchesterUK
  3. 3.The University of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations