Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 19–22 | Cite as

Hybrid natural orifice transluminal endoscopic cholecystectomy: prospective human series

  • Angel Cuadrado-GarciaEmail author
  • Jose F. Noguera
  • Jose M. Olea-Martinez
  • Rafael Morales
  • Carlos Dolz
  • Luis Lozano
  • Jose-Carlos Vicens
  • Juan José Pujol



Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) makes it possible to perform intraperitoneal surgical procedures with a minimal number of access points in the abdominal wall. Currently, it is not possible to perform these interventions without the help of abdominal wall entryways, so these procedures are hybrids fusing minilaparoscopy and transluminal endoscopic surgery. This report presents a prospective clinical series of 25 patients who underwent transvaginal hybrid cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis.


The study comprised a clinical series of 25 consecutive nonrandomized women who underwent a fusion transvaginal NOTES and minilaparoscopy procedure with two trocars for cholelithiasis: one 5-mm umbilical trocar and one 3-mm trocar in the upper left quadrant. The study had no control group.


The scheduled surgical intervention was performed for all 25 women. No intraoperative complications occurred. One patient had mild hematuria that resolved in less than 12 h, but no other complications occurred during an average follow-up period of 140 days. Of the 25 women, 20 were discharged in 24 h, and 5 were discharged less than 12 h after the procedure.


Hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy, combining NOTES and minilaparoscopy, is a good surgical model for minimally invasive surgery. It can be performed in surgical settings where laparoscopy is practiced regularly using the instruments normally used for endoscopy and laparoscopic surgery. Due to the reproducibility of the intervention and the ease of vaginal closure, hybrid transvaginal cholecystectomy will permit further development of NOTES in the future.


Cholecystectomy Minilaparoscopy Natural orifice surgery NOTES 



Angel Cuadrado-Garcia, Jose F. Noguera, Jose M. Olea-Martinez, Rafael Morales, Carlos Dolz, Luis Lozano, Jose-Carlos Vicens, and Juan José Pujol have no conflicts of interest or financial ties to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Angel Cuadrado-Garcia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jose F. Noguera
    • 1
  • Jose M. Olea-Martinez
    • 1
  • Rafael Morales
    • 1
  • Carlos Dolz
    • 1
  • Luis Lozano
    • 1
  • Jose-Carlos Vicens
    • 1
  • Juan José Pujol
    • 2
  1. 1.Surgery and Gastroenterology DepartmentHospital Son LlàtzerPalma de MallorcaSpain
  2. 2.Surgery DepartmentHospital Son LlàtzerPalma de MallorcaSpain

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