Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 24, Issue 7, pp 1528–1532

Multipurpose surgical robot as a laparoscope assistant

  • Carl A. Nelson
  • Xiaoli Zhang
  • Bhavin C. Shah
  • Matthew R. Goede
  • Dmitry Oleynikov
Article

Abstract

Background

This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a new, compact surgical robot at improving laparoscope guidance. Currently, the assistant guiding the laparoscope camera tends to be less experienced and requires physical and verbal direction from the surgeon. Human guidance has disadvantages of fatigue and shakiness leading to inconsistency in the field of view. This study investigates whether replacing the assistant with a compact robot can improve the stability of the surgeon’s field of view and also reduce crowding at the operating table.

Methods

A compact robot based on a bevel-geared “spherical mechanism” with 4 degrees of freedom and capable of full dexterity through a 15-mm port was designed and built. The robot was mounted on the standard railing of the operating table and used to manipulate a laparoscope through a supraumbilical port in a porcine model via a joystick controlled externally by a surgeon. The process was videotaped externally via digital video recorder and internally via laparoscope. Robot position data were also recorded within the robot’s motion control software.

Results

The robot effectively manipulated the laparoscope in all directions to provide a clear and consistent view of liver, small intestine, and spleen. Its range of motion was commensurate with typical motions executed by a human assistant and was well controlled with the joystick.

Conclusions

Qualitative analysis of the video suggested that this method of laparoscope guidance provides highly stable imaging during laparoscopic surgery, which was confirmed by robot position data. Because the robot was table-mounted and compact in design, it increased standing room around the operation table and did not interfere with the workspace of other surgical instruments. The study results also suggest that this robotic method may be combined with flexible endoscopes for highly dexterous visualization with more degrees of freedom.

Keywords

Laparoscope Robot Camera assistant Minimally invasive surgery 

References

  1. 1.
    Intuitive Surgical, Inc. (2009) Available at http://www.intuitivesurgical.com. Accessed 21 May 2009
  2. 2.
    Guthart GS, Salisbury JK (2000) The intuitive telesurgery system: overview and application. Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, San Francisco, CA, pp 618-621Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Unger SW, Unger HM, Bass RT (1994) AESOP robotic arm. Surg Endosc 8(9):1131CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Endocontrol (2009) Available at http://www.endocontrol-medical.com. Accessed 21 May 2009
  5. 5.
    Berkelman P, Boidard E, Cinquin P, Troccaz J (2003) LER: The light endoscope robot. Proceedings of the IEEE international conference on intelligent robots and systems, Las Vegas, NV, pp 2835-2840Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prosurgics (2009) Available at http://www.prosurgics.com. Accessed 21 May 2009
  7. 7.
    Medsys (2009) Available at http://www.medsys.be. Accessed 21 May 2009
  8. 8.
    AKTORmed (2009) Available at http://soloassist.com. Accessed 21 May 2009
  9. 9.
    Kim SK, Shin WH, Ko SY, Kim J, Kwon DS (2008) Design of a compact 5-DOF surgical robot of a spherical mechanism: CURES. Proceedings of the 2008 IEEE/ASME international conference on advanced intelligent mechatronics, Xi'an, China, pp 990-995Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zemiti N, Ortmaier T, Morel G (2004) A new robot for force control in minimally invasive surgery. Proceedings of the IEEE conference on intelligent robots and systems, Sendai, Japan, vol 4, pp 3643-3648Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lum M, Friedman D, Rosen J, Sankaranarayanan G, King H, Fodero K, Leuschke R, Sinanan M, Hannaford B (2009) The RAVEN—design and validation of a telesurgery system. Int J Rob Res 28:1183–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang X, Oleynikov D, Nelson CA (2009) Portable tool positioning robot for telesurgery. Medicine meets virtual reality 17, Long Beach, CA, January 19-22, 2009. Stud Health Technol Inform 142:438-443 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sekimoto M, Nishikawa A, Taniguchi K, Takiguchi S, Miyazaki F, Doki Y, Mori M (2009) Development of a compact laparoscope manipulator (P-arm). Surg Endosc 23. doi:10.1007/s00464-009-0460-0

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carl A. Nelson
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xiaoli Zhang
    • 1
  • Bhavin C. Shah
    • 2
  • Matthew R. Goede
    • 2
  • Dmitry Oleynikov
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  3. 3.Center for Advanced Surgical TechnologyUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaNEUSA

Personalised recommendations