3D virtual reality and selective vascular control for laparoscopic left hepatic lobectomy
Careful control of haemostasis is particularly important in laparoscopic hepatic surgery, since a bloodless operative field results in safer and smoother procedures. A selective vascular control for a left lateral segmentectomy may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional (3D) virtual reality.
Materials and methods
A 67-year-old male patient presenting with a 3.5-cm hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located between segment II and III of the liver was referred for hepatic resection. Transplant was contraindicated due to previous head and neck cancer surgery. Preoperative 3D reconstruction was used for preoperative planning and allowed a virtual resection to be done as well as peroperative simulation.
Five ports were used. The first step was primary control of the hepatic pedicle. 3D virtual-reality reconstruction demonstrated the position of the tumor in the segment and regarding the vessels. The left hepatic artery and the portal vein were successively dissected and controlled. The real anatomy was compared to the virtual-reality reconstruction. Both demonstrated the same anatomy. Vascular section was completed and this resulted in a typical color change of the left lateral segment as well as a small decrease in size. The bisegmentectomy was performed using harmonic dissectors (Autosonix®, Tyco Healthcare), bipolar cautery, clips, and application of Endo GIA vascular staples (Tyco Healthcare) on the portal pedicles. The procedure was completed following isolation and control of the left hepatic vein. After section, the specimen was placed in a bag and extracted following enlargement of the camera port. Follow-up was uneventful and there was no elevation of hepatic enzymes or postoperative ascites. The patient left the hospital on the fifth postoperative day.
3D reconstruction allowed the procedure to be simulated preoperatively. This facilitated the intraoperative identification of the vascular anatomy and the control of the left lateral segment arteries and veins, thus preventing intraoperative bleeding. The use of this approach in preoperative planning is recommended.
KeywordsLaparoscopy Surgery Liver Hepatectomy Virtual reality Tumor
The automatic identification of the tumor, the identification of the vascular distribution in the hilum of the liver, and the virtual resection. (MPG 38821 kb)
For typical left lobectomy and according to the identification of the anatomy obtained thanks to the preoperative reconstruction, the dissection started by the preparation and control of the vascular elements into the hepatic pedicle. Arteries and portal veins are successively identified and controlled. Vessels addressed to the left lobe are selectively clipped and cut before parenchymal dissection. (MPG 67585 kb)
The realization of the hepatic dissection using all the available devices to perform haemostasis: monopolar cautery, bipolar cautery, clips, sutures, and staplers. The complete control of the vascular structures before the hepatic dissection itself allows the performance of bloodless vascular resection. A harmonic dissector represents a valuable extra device to perform this surgical procedure. Hepatic pedicles for segments III and II and finally for the left hepatic vein are successively dissected and controlled. The specimen is placed into a bag for removal. (MPG 67171 kb)
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