Total extraperitoneal (TEP) mesh repair of inguinal hernia in the developing world: comparison of low-cost indigenous balloon dissection versus direct telescopic dissection: a prospective randomized controlled study
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Creation of extraperitoneal space during TEP repair requires an expensive commercially available balloon.
Patients and methods
Fifty-six patients suffering from uncomplicated primary unilateral or bilateral groin hernia were randomized into two groups; group 1 – indigenous balloon dissection and group 2 – direct telescopic dissection.
There were 55 males and 1 female, with an average age of 49 years; 50% of the inguinal hernias were bilateral. Creation of extraperitoneal space was considered as satisfactory in majority of patients (94.6%) with satisfactory anatomical delineation. Peritoneal breach was noticed during dissection in 36 (64.3%) patients. There was one (3.8%) conversion of TEP to TAPP in group 2. Distance between pubic symphysis to umbilicus was an important factor, which affected the easiness of dissection. In patients with this distance ≤14 cm lateral placement of ports was considered for easy use of graspers. The incidence of scrotal edema was significantly higher in group 2 as compared with group 1 (p < 0.01). Patients with indirect inguinal hernias in group 2 presented with a greater number of scrotal edema. Pain score on VAS at 6 h after surgery was significantly higher in group 2 (p < 0.021). Patients with age <65 years, bilateral hernias, and indirect hernias had a correlation with higher pain score at 6 h. Of the patients, 17.9% developed seroma in group 1 versus 64.3% in group 2 (p < 0.001).
Anatomical delineation of inguinal area and dissection in the extraperitoneal space in TEP repair was equally satisfactory with both low-cost indigenous balloon (group 1) and telescopic dissection (group 2). Balloon dissection was associated with significantly reduced postoperative pain at 6 h, scrotal edema, and seroma formation. However at 3 months follow-up balloon dissection did not offer significant advantage over direct telescopic dissection in the overall long-term outcome of TEP repairs. If balloon dissection is considered useful for the beginner, low-cost indigenous balloon may be used to avoid higher cost of commercially available balloon dissector with added early advantages.
KeywordsGroin hernia repair Total extraperitoneal repair TEP repair Balloon dissection Telescopic dissection Laparoscopic groin hernia repair Polypropylene mesh Seroma Peritoneal laceration Postoperative pain
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