Laparoscopic treatment of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
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Metabolic syndrome refers to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Hyperglycemia is a critical component contributing to the predictive power of the syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate the results from the laparoscopic interposition of an ileum segment into the proximal jejunum for the treatment of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a body mass index (BMI) lower than 35.
Laparoscopic procedures were performed for 60 patients (24 women and 36 men) with a mean age of 51.7 ± 6.4 years (range, 27–66 years) and a mean BMI of 30.1 ± 2.7 (range, 23.6–34.4). All the patients had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) given at least 3 years previously and evidence of stable treatment using oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin, or both for at least 12 months. The mean duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus was 9.6 ± 4.6 years (range, 3–22 years). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed for all 60 patients. Arterial hypertension was diagnosed for 70% of the patients (mean number of drugs, 1.6) and hypertriglyceridemia for 70%. High-density lipoprotein was altered in 51.7% of the patients and the abdominal circumference in 68.3%. Two techniques were performed: ileal interposition (II) into the proximal jejunum and sleeve gastrectomy (II-SG) or ileal interposition associated with a diverted sleeve gastrectomy (II-DSG).
The II-SG procedure was performed for 32 patients and the II-DSG procedure for 28 patients. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 7.4 months (range, 3–19 months). The mean BMI was 23.8 ± 4.1 kg/m2, and 52 patients (86.7%) achieved adequate glycemic control. Hypertriglyceridemia was normalized for 81.7% of the patients. An high-density lipoprotein level higher than 40 for the men and higher than 50 for the women was achieved by 90.3% of the patients. The abdominal circumference reached was less than 102 cm for the men and 88 cm for the women. Arterial hypertension was controlled in 90.5% of the patients. For the control of metabolic syndrome, II-DSG was the more effective procedure.
Laparoscopic II-SG and II-DSG seem to be promising procedures for the control of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A longer follow-up period is needed.
KeywordsArterial hypertension Cardiovascular disease Diabetes Dyslipidemia Ileal interposition Metabolic syndrome
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