Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 22, Issue 9, pp 2036–2045

Preincisional and intraperitoneal ropivacaine plus normal saline infusion for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial

  • George Pappas-Gogos
  • Konstandinos E. Tsimogiannis
  • Nicolaos Zikos
  • Konstantinos Nikas
  • Adamantia Manataki
  • Evangelos C. Tsimoyiannis
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00464-008-9762-x

Cite this article as:
Pappas-Gogos, G., Tsimogiannis, K.E., Zikos, N. et al. Surg Endosc (2008) 22: 2036. doi:10.1007/s00464-008-9762-x

Abstract

Background

A clinical trial was designed to assess the use of preincisional and intraperitoneal ropivacaine, combined or not with normal saline, to reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).

Methods

For this trial, 120 patients were randomly assigned to six groups. For all the patients, preincisional local infiltration of ropivacaine around the trocar wounds was performed. Group A had infusion of ropivacaine at the beginning of the LC. Group B had infusion of ropivacaine at the beginning of the LC plus normal saline infusion at the end. Group C had normal saline infusion and ropivacaine at the end of the LC. Group D had infusion of ropivacaine at the beginning of the LC plus normal saline infusion at the end and a subhepatic closed drain. Group E had ropivacaine at the end of the LC. Group F (control group) had neither ropivacaine nor normal saline infusion. Shoulder tip and abdominal pain were registered at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h postoperatively using a visual analog score (VAS).

Results

Significantly lower pain scores were observed in group B than in group A at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h or in groups C, D, E, and F at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Group A also had significantly lower pain scores than groups C, D, E, and F at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Requests for analgesics also were significantly less in group B than in group A at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h or in groups C, D, and E at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. Demand for additional analgesia was less in group B than in groups A, C, D, E, and F at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h and in group A than in groups C, D, E, and F at 2, 4, 6, and 12 h.

Conclusion

Preincisional local infiltration plus intraperitoneal infusion of ropivacaine at the beginning of LC combined with normal saline infusion at the end of the procedure is a safe and valid method for reducing pain after LC.

Keywords

Abdominal pain Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Local anesthetics Normal saline Ropivacaine hydrochloride Shoulder pain Trocar wounds 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Pappas-Gogos
    • 1
  • Konstandinos E. Tsimogiannis
    • 1
  • Nicolaos Zikos
    • 1
  • Konstantinos Nikas
    • 1
  • Adamantia Manataki
    • 2
  • Evangelos C. Tsimoyiannis
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryG. Hatzikosta General HospitalIoanninaGreece
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiaG. Hatzikosta General HospitalIoanninaGreece
  3. 3.IoanninaGreece

Personalised recommendations