Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy: surgery without a visible scar
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Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been recognized since 1992 as the gold standard procedure for gallbladder surgery. The authors propose a single-incision laparoscopic (SILS) cholecystectomy as a step toward less invasive surgical procedures. A single intraumbilical 12-mm incision is made, and the umbilicus is pulled out, exposing the fascia. Pneumoperitoneum is induced with the Versastep Veress access needle. A 5-mm trocar then is introduced, and the abdominal cavity is explored with a 5-mm 30° optic. Second and third trocars are introduced respectively at the left and right sides, near the first trocar. Two sutures are used to suspend the gallblabber and to ensure optimal exposure of the Triangle of Calot. Dissection is performed as a normal retrograde cholecystectomy using an Endoshear roticulator in the left trocar and an Endograsp roticulator in the right hand. The cystic artery and cystic duct are clipped separately with a standard 5-mm clip applier and then excised. The gallbladder is removed through the umbilical incision. Of the 12 patients who underwent SILS cholecystectomy without major complications, 8 had previously undergone other laparoscopic surgeries. The body mass index (BMI) exceeded 35 in three cases. Operative time decreased and stabilized from the first 3-h SILS cholecystectomy to approximately 50 min after the first five cases. At this writing, the authors find SILS cholecystectomy to be feasible, safe, and effective.