Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 821–848

Laparoscopic splenectomy: the clinical practice guidelines of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES)

  • B. Habermalz
  • S. Sauerland
  • G. Decker
  • B. Delaitre
  • J.-F. Gigot
  • E. Leandros
  • K. Lechner
  • M. Rhodes
  • G. Silecchia
  • A. Szold
  • E. Targarona
  • P. Torelli
  • E. Neugebauer
Consensus Statement

Abstract

Background

Although laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) has become the standard approach for most splenectomy cases, some areas still remain controversial. To date, the indications that preclude laparoscopic splenectomy are not clearly defined. In view of this, the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) has developed clinical practice guidelines for LS.

Methods

An international expert panel was invited to appraise the current literature and to develop evidence-based recommendations. A consensus development conference using a nominal group process convened in May 2007. Its recommendations were presented at the annual EAES congress in Athens, Greece, on 5 July 2007 for discussion and further input. After a further Delphi process between the experts, the final recommendations were agreed upon.

Results

Laparoscopic splenectomy is indicated for most benign and malignant hematologic diseases independently of the patient’s age and body weight. Preoperative investigation is recommended for obtaining information on spleen size and volume as well as the presence of accessory splenic tissue. Preoperative vaccination against meningococcal, pneumococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae type B infections is recommended in elective cases. Perioperative anticoagulant prophylaxis with subcutaneous heparin should be administered to all patients and prolonged anticoagulant prophylaxis to high-risk patients. The choice of approach (supine [anterior], semilateral or lateral) is left to the surgeon’s preference and concomitant conditions. In cases of massive splenomegaly, the hand-assisted technique should be considered to avoid conversion to open surgery and to reduce complication rates. The expert panel still considered portal hypertension and major medical comorbidities as contraindications to LS.

Conclusion

Despite a lack of level 1 evidence, LS is a safe and advantageous procedure in experienced hands that has displaced open surgery for almost all indications. To support the clinical evidence, further randomized controlled trials on different issues are mandatory.

Keywords

Guidelines ITP–Laparoscopic Laparoscopy Minimally invasive surgery Splenectomy 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Habermalz
    • 1
  • S. Sauerland
    • 1
  • G. Decker
    • 2
  • B. Delaitre
    • 3
  • J.-F. Gigot
    • 4
  • E. Leandros
    • 5
  • K. Lechner
    • 6
  • M. Rhodes
    • 7
  • G. Silecchia
    • 8
  • A. Szold
    • 9
  • E. Targarona
    • 10
  • P. Torelli
    • 11
  • E. Neugebauer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Research in Operative MedicineUniversity Witten/HerdeckeKölnGermany
  2. 2.Department of Visceral and Thoracic SurgeryClinique Ste.ThérèseLuxemburgLuxemburg
  3. 3.Departement de ChirurgieHopital CochinParisFrance
  4. 4.Department of Abdominal Surgery and TransplantationSt. Luc University Hospital, Louvain Medical SchoolBrusselsBelgium
  5. 5.First Department of Propaedeutic SurgeryHippocrateion HospitalAthensGreece
  6. 6.Division of Haematology and HaemostaseologyMedical UniversityViennaAustria
  7. 7.Department of SurgeryNorfolk and Norwich University HospitalNorwichUK
  8. 8.Department of General Surgery “Paride Stefani,” Policlinico Umberto IUniversity La SapienzaRomeItaly
  9. 9.Department of Surgery BTel Aviv Sourasky Medical CenterTel AvivIsrael
  10. 10.Department of General and Digestive SurgeryHospital Sant PauBarcelonaSpain
  11. 11.Department of Miniinvasive SurgerySanremo HospitalSanremoItaly

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