Surgical Endoscopy

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1440–1444

Construct validity testing of a laparoscopic surgery simulator (Lap Mentor®)

Evaluation of surgical skill with a virtual laparoscopic training simulator
  • Aimin Zhang
  • Michael Hünerbein
  • Yiyang Dai
  • Peter M. Schlag
  • Siegfried Beller



Before surgical simulators can be implemented for assessment of surgical training, their construct validity should be assessed.


Nine novices (NOV), nine medical students (MS), and nine residents (RES) underwent a laparoscopic skills training on the virtual reality (VR) simulator Lap Mentor®. Assessment of laparoscopic skill was based on parameters measured by the computer system before and after training.


Significant difference existed between RES and NOV at seven of nine tasks before training on the VR simulator. After the training in some tasks significant differences were observed between the experienced group (RES) and the nonexperienced groups (MS and NOV) or between medical groups (RES and MS) and nonmedical group (NOV).


Performance parameters of the Lap-Mentor® can be used to distinguish between subjects with varying laparoscopic experience.


Laparoscopy Virtual reality Simulation Training Evaluation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aimin Zhang
    • 1
  • Michael Hünerbein
    • 1
  • Yiyang Dai
    • 1
  • Peter M. Schlag
    • 1
  • Siegfried Beller
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgery and Surgical OncologyCharite Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Klinik für Chirurgie und Chirurgische OnkologieCharitè Campus BuchBerlinGermany

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