Percutaneous cholecystostomy for high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis
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Cholecystectomy remains the best treatment for acute cholecystitis but may cause high morbidity and mortality in critically ill or elderly patients.
From October 1995 to March 2004, percutaneous cholecystostomy was performed in 65 patients with acute cholecystitis. The mean age was 78 years (range, 45–95). All patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class III (n = 51) or ASA IV (n = 14).
Percutaneous cholecystostomy was technically successful in 63 patients (97%) with no attributable mortality or major complications. In two patients, bile drainage was inefficient, requiring emergency laparoscopic cholecystectomy. One patient developed necrotic cholecystitis and died. The 30-day mortality rate was 13.8% (n = 9); eight patients died of respiratory or cardiac complications related to comorbidities. Mean drainage time was 18 days (range, 9–60). Postoperative length of hospital stay was 15 days (range, 7–30). Early and delayed cholecystitis occurred in six and five patients, respectively. During follow-up (mean, 20.4 months), five patients died of their underlying medical condition at 5, 6, 8, 12, and 14 months, respectively. In this study, delayed elective cholecystectomy was performed in 10 patients (15.3%).
Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a valuable and effective procedure without mortality and with a low morbidity. Whenever possible, percutaneous cholecystostomy should be followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
KeywordsAcute cholecystitis Critically ill patients Percutaneous cholecystostomy
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