Surgical Endoscopy And Other Interventional Techniques

, Volume 19, Issue 9, pp 1220–1226 | Cite as

The Eindhoven laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course—improving operating room performance using virtual reality training: results from the first E.A.E.S. accredited virtual reality trainings curriculum

  • M. P. SchijvenEmail author
  • J. J. Jakimowicz
  • I. A. M. J. Broeders
  • L. N. L. Tseng
Original article



This study was undertaken to investigate operating room performance of surgical residents, after participating in the Eindhoven virtual reality laparoscopic cholecystectomy training course. This course is the first formal surgical resident trainings course, using a variety of complementary virtual reality (VR) skills training simulation in order to prepare surgical residents for their first laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The course was granted EAES certification.


The four-day course is based on multimedia and multimodality approach. A variety of increasingly difficult simulation training sessions, next to intimate focus-group “knowledge sessions” are included. Both basic and procedural VR simulation is featured, using MIST-VR and the Xitacts' LapChol simulation software. The operating room performance of twelve surgical residents who participated in the course and twelve case-control counterparts were compared. The case-control grup was matched for clinical number laparoscopic cholecystectomy performance (maximum of 4 procedures). Two observers analyzed a randomly mixed videotape, featuring the part of the “clip-and-cut” procedure of the laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and were blinded for participants' group status. Structured questionnaires including multiple observation scales were used to assess performance.


Residents of both the experimental and control group did not differ in demographic parameters, except for number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies in favor of the control group (p-value 0.008). Both observers judge the experimental group to perform significantly better (p-value 0.004 and 0.013). Experimental group residents valued their course highly in terms of their laparoscopic surgical skills improvement and the use of VR simulators in the surgical curiculum.


The Eindhoven Virtual Reality laparoscopic cholecyctectomy training course improves surgical skill in the operating room above the level of residents trained by a variety of other training methods.

Key words:

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy Virtual reality training Virtual reality simulation Surgical training  Skills laboratory 


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Copyright information

© Springer-VerlaSpringer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. P. Schijven
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. J. Jakimowicz
    • 1
  • I. A. M. J. Broeders
    • 1
  • L. N. L. Tseng
    • 1
  1. 1.IJsselland HospitalThe Netherlands

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