Clinical outcome of simultaneous self-expandable metal stents for palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction
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Background: Previous studies have shown that self-expanding metal stents are an effective method for palliation of malignant biliary or duodenal obstruction. We present our experience with the use of simultaneous self-expandable metal stents for palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients undergoing simultaneous biliary and duodenal self-expandable metal stent placement between November 98 and May 2001. All the patients had documented evidence of biliary obstruction and symptomatic duodenal obstruction. The patients received endoscopic biliary stenting with biliary Ultraflex or Wallstents, and endoscopic duodenal stenting using enteral Wallstents. They were followed until their death. Results: We identified 18 patients (11 men and 7 women) whose mean age was 65 years, (range, 46–85 years). Malignancies included pancreatic 14 (78%), biliary 2 (11%), lymphoma 1 (5%), and metastatic 1 (5%) disorders. Ten patients previously had plastic biliary stents placed for past malignant biliary obstruction (4 patients had recurrent biliary obstruction). All the patients had evidence of duodenal obstruction. Combined metal stenting was successful in 17 patients. One procedure failed due to a tortuous duodenal stricture. All the patients had effective palliation of biliary obstruction, as evidenced by a decrease in the level of total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. Of the 17 patients with successful duodenal stenting, 16 had a good clinical outcome, with relief of obstructive symptoms. No immediate stent-related complications were noted. During the follow-up period, 12 patients died of progression of the underlying malignancy. None of the deaths were stent related. Median survival time was 78 days. Two patients had recurrent biliary obstruction from tumor ingrowth at 45 and 68 days, respectively. Both underwent restenting: one by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and the other by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC). Two other patients had recurrent duodenal obstruction, respectively, 36 and 45 days after the initial stenting. One obstruction was secondary to tumor ingrowth, and the other was caused by distal stent migration. Both patients had successful duodenal restenting. Conclusion: Combined self-expandable metal stenting for simultaneous palliation of malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction may provide a safe and less invasive alternative to surgical palliation with an acceptable clinical outcome. Simultaneous self-expandable metal stents should be considered as a treatment option for patients who are poor candidates for surgery.
KeywordsBiliary Obstruction Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography Duodenal Obstruction Malignant Biliary Obstruction Tumor Ingrowth
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