Laparoscopic surgery-induced changes in oxidative stress markers in human plasma
Background: The induction of the pneumoperitoneum increases intraabdominal pressure (IAP), causing splanchnic ischemia, whereas its deflation normalizes IAP and splanchnic blood flow. This procedure appears to represent an ischemia-reperfusion model in humans. Methods: Thirty laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) were performed in 30 patients with a mean age of 54.6 ± 15.6 years. A group of 20 patients mean age, 57.3 ± 9.65 who underwent open cholecystectomy (OC) was also studied. Vein plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), a marker of free radical production; plasma total antioxidant status (TAS); and uric acid (UA) levels were measured preoperatively, 5 min after deflation of the pneumoperitoneum or at the end of operation, and 24 h postoperatively. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and total bilirubin (TBL) levels were measured preoperatively and 24 h after the operation. Results: In the LC group, significant elevations in the concentration of TBARS were observed in the early postoperative measurements in comparison with the preoperative measurements. TAS and UA levels were decreased significantly 24 h postoperatively compared to preoperative levels. The postoperative levels of AST, ALT, and TBL increased significantly in comparison with the preoperative levels. In the OC group, no alterations in the concentration of TBARS were observed in the postoperative period. The other parameters had changes similar to those recorded for the LC group. Conclusions: Free radical-induced lipid peroxidation associated with a decrease in plasma antioxidant capacity and UA levels as well as altered hepatic function is observed after deflation of the pneumoperitoneum. These results suggest that free radicals are generated at the end of a laparoscopic procedure, possibly as a result of an ischemia-reperfusion phenomenon induced by the inflation and deflation of the pneumoperitoneum.
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