Alteration of Brain Functional Connectivity in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Dysphagia
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Dysphagia is a common non-primary symptom of patients with Parkinson’s disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the underlying alterations of brain functional connectivity in Parkinson’s disease patients with dysphagia by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We recruited 13 Parkinson’s disease patients with dysphagia and ten patients without dysphagia, diagnosed by videofluoroscopic study of swallowing. Another 13 age and sex-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Eigenvector centrality mapping was computed to identify functional connectivity alterations among these groups. Parkinson’s disease patients with dysphagia had significantly increased functional connectivity in the cerebellum, left premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary motor cortex, right temporal pole of superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and insula, compared with patients without dysphagia. This study suggests that functional connectivity changes in swallowing-related cortexes might contribute to the occurrence of dysphagia in Parkinson’s disease patients.
KeywordsParkinson’s disease Dysphagia Functional connectivity Videofluoroscopic study of swallowing Deglutition Deglutition disorders
The authors thank all the Parkinson’s disease patients and the normal controls who participated in our research.
JG designed the study, performed neurological evaluations, statistical analyses, and wrote the first draft. XG performed rsfMRI image preprocessing, statistical analyses and the review and critique of the manuscript. ZC, YC, XD and YL conducted VFSS data acquisition, neurological evaluations and the review and critique of the manuscript. SW, BW and ZO participated in subjects’ collection, VFSS data acquisition and neurological evaluations. MX, QG, XX, PH and MZ helped rsfMRI preprocessing. WL conceived of and organized the research project, participated in the neurological evaluations, and the review and critique of the manuscript.
This study was supported by the Science Technology Department of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. 2018C03G1121039), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2018FZA118) and the 13th Five-year Plan for National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFC1306600).
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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