Advertisement

Dysphagia

pp 1–6 | Cite as

Sarcopenia is an Independent Risk Factor for Dysphagia in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

  • Seungwoo Cha
  • Won-Seok Kim
  • Ki Woong Kim
  • Ji Won Han
  • Hak Chul Jang
  • Soo Lim
  • Nam-Jong PaikEmail author
Original Article

Abstract

Dysphagia is common in older adults and associated with increased socioeconomic burdens. Recently, sarcopenia is considered to be a possible contributor for dysphagia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of dysphagia with sarcopenia in a geriatric population in Korea. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). Community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years and older without common causes of dysphagia in Seongnam City, Korea were included (N = 236). Dysphagia was screened using Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was calculated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Grip strength and long-distance corridor walk were assessed. Of 236 subjects, 54 (22.9%) showed dysphagia and 38 (16.1%) showed sarcopenia. Fourteen (5.9%) participants were diagnosed with sarcopenic dysphagia. In multiple logistic regression analysis for dysphagia, sarcopenia was the only significant variable with odds ratio of 2.738 (95% confidence interval 1.160–6.466). Sarcopenia was associated with increased risk of dysphagia in community-dwelling older adults having no common causes of dysphagia even after adjusting for possible confounders. A prospective study with a larger sample size is needed to reveal their causal relationship in the future.

Keywords

Sarcopenia Deglutition Deglutition disorders Aged Older adults 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Ki Woong Kim received a Grant from the Korean Health Technology R&D project funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (Grant No. HI09C1379 [A092077]). Nam-Jong Paik received a grant from the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital (Grant No. 12-2013-007).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

There is no other conflict of interest except for the grants mentioned above.

Informed Consent

Written informed consent was obtained from all study volunteers.

References

  1. 1.
    Madhavan A, Lagorio LA, Crary MA, Dahl WJ, Carnaby GD. Prevalence of and risk factors for dysphagia in the community dwelling elderly: a systematic review. J Nutr Health Aging. 2016;20(8):806–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cabré M, Serra-Prat M, Force L, Almirall J, Palomera E, Clavé P. Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a risk factor for readmission for pneumonia in the very elderly persons: observational prospective study. J Gerontol. 2014;69(3):330–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ekberg O, Hamdy S, Woisard V, Wuttge-Hannig A, Ortega P. Social and psychological burden of dysphaiga: its impact on diagnosis and treatment. Dysphagia. 2002;17(2):139–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Roy N, Stemple J, Merrill RM, Thomas L. Dysphagia in the elderly: preliminary evidence of prevalence, risk factors, and socioemotional effects. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116(11):858–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Suh MK, Kim H, Na DL. Dysphagia in patients with dementia: alzheimer versus vascular. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2009;23(2):178–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yeom J, Song YS, Lee WK, Oh BM, Han TR, Seo HG. Diagnosis and clinical course of unexplained dysphagia. Ann Rehabil Med. 2016;40(1):95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wakabayashi H. Presbyphagia and sarcopenic dysphagia: association between aging, sarcopenia, and deglutition disorders. J Frailty Aging. 2014;3(2):97–103.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sakai K, Sakuma K. Sarcopenic dysphagia as a new concept. Frailty sarcopenia—onset, dev clin challenges. London: IntechOpen; 2017.  https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.68791.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anker SD, Morley JE, von Haehling S. Welcome to the ICD-10 code for sarcopenia. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2016;7(5):512–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, et al. Sarcopenia: european consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age Ageing. 2010;39(4):412–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kuroda Y, Kuroda R. Relationship between thinness and swallowing function in japanese older adults: implications for sarcopenic dysphagia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2012;60(9):1785–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shiozu H, Higashijima M, Koga T. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals. J Phys Ther Sci. 2015;27(2):393–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wakabayashi H, Matsushima M, Uwano R, Watanabe N, Oritsu H, Shimizu Y. Skeletal muscle mass is associated with severe dysphagia in cancer patients. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. 2015;6(4):351–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Maeda K, Akagi J. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of dysphagia in hospitalized older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2016;16(4):515–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Park JH, Lim J. An overview of the Korean Longitudinal Study on health and aging. Mov Disord. 2007;4(2):84.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lee DY, Lee KU, Lee JH, Kim KW, Jhoo JH, Kim SY, et al. A normative study of the CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery in the Korean elderly. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2004;10(1):72–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Perry L. Screening swallowing function of patients with acute stroke. Part two: detailed evaluation of the tool used by nurses. J Clin Nurs. 2001;10(4):474–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Park YH, Han HR, Oh S, Chang H. Validation of the Korean version of the standardized swallowing assessment among nursing home residents. J Gerontol Nurs. 2014;40(2):26–35.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen LK, Liu LK, Woo J, Assantachai P, Auyeung TW, Bahyah KS, et al. Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian working group for sarcopenia. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2014;15(2):95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Newman AB, Simonsick EM, Naydeck BL, Boudreau RM, Kritchevsky SB, Nevitt MC, et al. Association of long-distance corridor walk performance with mortality, cardiovascular disease, mobility limitation, and disability. J Am Med Assoc. 2006;295(17):2018–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kang S, Choi S, Lee B, Kwon J. The reliability and validity of the Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (K-IADL). J Korean Neurol Assoc. 2002;20(1):8–14.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee HS, Kim DK, Ko HJ, Ku HM, Kwon EJ, Kim JH. The standardization of “Geriatric Quality of Life scale”. Korean J Clin Psychol. 2003;22(4):859–81.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maeda K, Akagi J. Decreased tongue pressure is associated with sarcopenia and sarcopenic dysphagia in the elderly. Dysphagia. 2015;30(1):80–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Humbert IA, Robbins JA. Dysphagia in the elderly. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2008;19(4):853–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yoon WL, Khoo JKP, Liow SJR. Chin tuck against resistance (CTAR): new method for enhancing suprahyoid muscle activity using a shaker-type exercise. Dysphagia. 2014;29(2):243–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Robbins J, Gangnon RE, Theis SM, Kays SA, Hewitt AL, Hind JA. The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(9):1483–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Landi F, Schneider SM, Zúñiga C, Arai H, Boirie Y, et al. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age Ageing. 2014;43(6):748–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Marik PE, Kaplan D. Aspiration pneumonia and dysphagia in the elderly. Chest. 2003;124(1):328–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maeda K, Akagi J. Treatment of sarcopenic dysphagia with rehabilitation and nutritional support: a comprehensive approach. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016;116(4):573–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Park YH, Bang HL, Han HR, Chang HK. Dysphagia screening measures for use in nursing homes: a systematic review. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2015;45(1):1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Maeda K, Takaki M, Akagi J. Decreased skeletal muscle mass and risk factors of sarcopenic dysphagia: a prospective observational cohort study. J Gerontol. 2017;72(9):1290–4.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clavé P, Shaker R. Dysphagia: current reality and scope of the problem. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015;12(5):259–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Seungwoo Cha
    • 1
  • Won-Seok Kim
    • 1
  • Ki Woong Kim
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ji Won Han
    • 3
    • 4
  • Hak Chul Jang
    • 5
  • Soo Lim
    • 5
  • Nam-Jong Paik
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University College of MedicineSeoul National University Bundang HospitalSeongnam-siKorea
  2. 2.Department of Brain and Cognitive ScienceSeoul National University College of Natural SciencesSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatrySeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Department of NeuropsychiatrySeoul National University Bundang HospitalSeongnamKorea
  5. 5.Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of MedicineSeoul National University Bundang HospitalSeongnamKorea

Personalised recommendations