, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 315–320 | Cite as

Effects of Tongue Strength Training and Detraining on Tongue Pressures in Healthy Adults

  • Jong-Chi Oh
Original Article


This study examined the effect of tongue strengthening training and long-term detraining on tongue tip pressure, tongue base pressure, and tongue pressure during effortful swallowing. Ten young healthy volunteers (21–35 years) were participated in this study. Participants received 8-week tongue strengthening exercise 3 days a week with each session lasting 30 min. Measurement of tongue pressure and tongue strengthening exercise were administrated using Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Training intensity was applied at 60 and 80 % of maximal tongue pressure for the first week and the remainder, respectively. Following completion of 8-week training, 28 weeks of detraining period was continued. Training increased tongue tip pressure, tongue base pressure, and tongue pressure during effortful swallowing above pre-training values (p < 0.05). After 28-week detraining, all tongue variables were significantly lower than after 8-week training (p < 0.05) but remained significantly higher than pre-training levels (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that high-intensity tongue strengthening exercise can improve tongue pressures. However, training effects were diminished gradually during detraining period. Thus, maintenance programs after strengthening exercise would be required for prolonging training effects.


Deglutition Deglutition disorders Exercise Tongue Training 


Conflict of interest

The author has no conflict of interest to report.


  1. 1.
    Youmans SR, Youmans GL, Stierwalt JA. Differences in tongue strength across age and gender: is there a diminished strength reserve? Dysphagia. 2009;24(1):57–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Robbins J, Gangnon RE, Theis SM, Kays SA, Hewitt AL, Hind JA. The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(9):1483–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Palmer PM, Jaffe DM, McCulloch TM, Finnegan EM, Van Daele DJ, Luschei ES. Quantitative contributions of the muscles of the tongue, floor-of-mouth, jaw, and velum to tongue-to-palate pressure generation. J Speech Hear Res. 2008;51(4):828–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lazarus C, Logemann JA, Huang CF, Rademaker AW. Effects of two types of tongue strengthening exercises in young normals. Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2003;55(4):199–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Robbins J, Kays SA, Gangnon RE, Hind JA, Hewitt AL, Gentry LR, Taylor AJ. The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007;88(2):150–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yeates EM, Molfenter SM, Steele CM. Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: three case reports. Clin Interv Aging. 2008;3(4):735–47.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clark HM, O’Brien K, Calleja A, Corrie SN. Effects of directional exercise on lingual strength. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2009;52(4):1034–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Clark HM. Specificity of training in the lingual musculature. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2012;55(2):657–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lovell DI, Cuneo R. Gass. The effect of strength training and short-term detraining on maximum force and the rate of force development of older men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109(3):429–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Colliander EB, Tesch PA. Effects of detraining following short term resistance training on eccentric and concentric muscle strength. Acta Physiol Scand. 1992;144:23–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Narci MV, Roi GS, Landoni L, Minetti AE, Cerretelli P. Changes in force, cross-sectional area and neural activation during strength training and detraining of the human quadriceps. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1989;59:310–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andersen LL, Andersen JL, Magnusson SP, Aagaard P. Neuromuscular adaptations to detraining following resistance training in previously untrained subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2005;93:511–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Connelly DM, Vandervoort AA. Effects of detraining on knee extensor strength and functional mobility in a group of elderly women. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1997;26(6):340–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hakkinen K, Alen M, Kallinen M, Newton U, Kraemer R. Neuromuscular adaptation during prolonged strength training, detraining and re-strength-training in middle-aged and elderly people. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;83(1):51–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ivey FM, Tracy BL, Lemmer JT, NessAiver M, Metter EJ, Fozard JL, Hurley BF. Effects of strength training and detraining on muscle quality: age and gender comparison. J Gerontol A. 2000;55(3):B158–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Toraman NF. Short term and long term detraining: is there any difference between young-old and old people? Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(8):561–4.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Carvalho MJ, Marques E, Mota J. Training and detraining effects on functional fitness after a multicomponent training in older women. Gerontology. 2009;55(1):41–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Correa CS, Baroni BM, Radaelli R, Lanferdini FJ, Cunha Gdos S, Reischak-Oliveira A, Vaz MA, Pinto RS. Effects of strength training and detraining on knee extensor strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women. Age. 2013;35(5):1899–904.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fatouros IG, Kambas A, Katrabasas I, Nikolaidis K, Chatzinikolaou A, Leontsini D, Taxildaris K. Strength training and detraining effects on muscular strength, anaerobic power, and mobility of inactive older men are intensity dependent. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(10):776–80.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harris C, DeBeliso M, Adams KJ, Irmischer BS, Spitzer Gibson TA. Detraining in the older adult: effects of prior training intensity on strength retention. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(3):813–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tokmakidis SP, Rogers MA, Hurley BF. Effects of strength training and detraining on regional muscle in young and older men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;105(6):929–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stal P, Marklund S, Thornell LE, De Paul R, Eriksson PO. Fibre composition of human tongue muscles. Cells Tissues Organs. 2003;17(3):147–61.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Robin DA, Goel A, Somodi LB, Luschei ES. Tongue strength and endurance: relation to highly skilled movements. J Speech Hear Res. 1992;35(6):1239–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(3):687–708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Burkhead LM, Sapienza CM, Rosenbek JC. Strength-training exercise in dysphagia rehabilitation: principles, procedures, and directions for future research. Dysphagia. 2007;22(3):251–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Trappe S, Williamson D, Godard M. Maintenance of whole muscle strength and size following resistance training in older men. J Gerontol A. 2002;57(4):B138–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Henwood TR, Taaffe DR. Detraining and retraining in older adults following long-term muscle power or muscle strength specific training. J Gerontol A. 2008;63(7):751–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Taaffe DR, Henwood TR, Nalls MA, Walker DG, Lang TF, Harris TB. Alterations in muscle attenuation following detraining and retraining in resistance-trained older adults. Gerontology. 2009;55(2):217–23.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Occupational TherapyDoowon Technical University CollegeAnseong-siRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations