, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 459–467 | Cite as

Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI)

  • Mohamed Farahat
  • Khalid H. Malki
  • Tamer A. MesallamEmail author
  • Manal Bukhari
  • Sami Alharethy
Original Article


The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people’s lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.95). Also, good test–retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the Arabic DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.


DHI Oropharyngeal dysphagia Arabic version 



The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through research group No. RGP-VPP-295. Also, we acknowledge the efforts of Ms. Sheakha Ahmed Al-Qrin (SLP, member of swallowing team) in collecting and entering the data.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to report.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Farahat
    • 1
    • 2
  • Khalid H. Malki
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tamer A. Mesallam
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Manal Bukhari
    • 5
  • Sami Alharethy
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Research Chair of Voice, Swallowing and Communication DisordersKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Otolaryngology Department, College of MedicineAl-Menoufiya UniversityShebin Al-KoumEgypt
  4. 4.ENT Department, Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit (CSDU)King Abdulaziz University HospitalRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryKing Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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