Advertisement

Dysphagia

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 280–284 | Cite as

Effect of Gender on Swallow Event Duration Assessed by Videofluoroscopy

  • Roberto Oliveira DantasEmail author
  • Rachel de Aguiar Cassiani
  • Carla Manfredi dos Santos
  • Geruza Costa Gonzaga
  • Leda Maria Tavares Alves
  • Suleimy Cristina Mazin
Original Article

Abstract

There are data suggesting that women swallow liquids at a lower flow rate and ingest smaller volumes in each swallow than men. Our objective in this work was to compare swallowing in asymptomatic men and women by videofluoroscopy. We studied 18 men [age = 33–77 years, mean = 61 (10) years] and 12 women [age = 29–72 years, mean = 53 (15) years] who swallowed in duplicate 5 and 10 ml of liquid and paste barium boluses. None of the volunteers had dysphagia, neurologic diseases, or oral, pharyngeal, or esophageal diseases. The videofluoroscopic examination showed that for the 5-ml bolus, women had a longer oropharyngeal transit [liquid: men, 0.63 (0.21) s, women, 0.88 (0.39) s; paste: men, 0.64 (0.35) s, women, 0.94 (0.58) s], longer oral transit [liquid: men, 0.41 (0.21) s, women, 0.59 (0.35) s; paste: men, 0.39 (0.28) s, women, 0.59 (0.42) s], and longer pharyngeal clearance [liquid: men, 0.36 (0.11) s, women, 0.45 (0.16) s; paste: men, 0.42 (0.25) s, women, 0.56 (0.27) s] compared with men (p < 0.05). We conclude that there are differences in swallowing between men and women, with women having a longer oropharyngeal transit than men for a 5-ml bolus.

Keywords

Gender Swallowing Men Women Deglutition Deglutition disorders 

References

  1. 1.
    Bass NH. The neurology of swallowing. In: Groher ME, editor. Dysphagia—diagnosis and management. 3rd ed. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann; 1997. p. 7–35.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dantas RO, Kern MK, Massey BT, Dodds WJ, Kahrilas PJ, Brasseur JG, et al. Effect of swallowed bolus variables on oral and pharyngeal phases of swallowing. Am J Physiol. 1990;258:G675–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Perlman AL, Schultz PG, Van Daele DJ. Effect of age, gender, bolus volume, and bolus viscosity on oropharyngeal pressure during swallowing. J Appl Physiol. 1993;75:33–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adeleye B, Rachel C. Comparison of the rheological properties of ready-to-serve and powdered instant food-thickened beverages at different temperatures for dysphagic patients. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107:1176–82. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2007.04.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hughes TAT, Wiles CM. Clinical measurement of swallowing in health and neurologic dysphagia. QJM. 1996;89(2):109–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alves LMT, Casssiani RA, Santos CM, Dantas RO. Gender effect on the clinical measurement of swallowing. Arq Gastroenterol. 2007;44:227–9. doi: 10.1590/S0004-28032007000300009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chee C, Arshad S, Singh S, Mistry S, Hamdy S. The influence of chemical gustatory stimuli and oral anaesthesia on healthy human pharyngeal swallowing. Chem Senses. 2005;30:393–400. doi: 10.1093/chemse/bji034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Levine MS, Rubesin SE. Radiology of the pharynx and esophagus. In: Castell DO, Richter JE, editors. The esophagus. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004. p. 47–105.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schall R. Estimation in generalized linear models with random effects. Biometrika. 1991;78(4):719–27. doi: 10.1093/biomet/78.4.719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Littell RC, Milliken GA, Stroup WW, Wolfinger RD. SAS system of non-linear mixed models. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.; 1996.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dantas RO, Ferriolli E, Souza MAN. Gender effects on esophageal motility. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1998;31:539–44. doi: 10.1590/S0100-879X1998000400011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gluckman A. Sexual dimorphism in human and mammalian biology and pathology. New York: Academic Press; 1981.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Trawitzki LVV, Dantas RO, Mello-Filho FV, Elias-Junior J. Effect of treatment of dentofacial deformity on masseter muscle thickness. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51:1086–92. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2006.06.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Julien KC, Bushchang PH, Throckmorton GS, Dechow PC. Normal mastigatory performance in young adults and children. Arch Oral Biol. 1996;41:69–75. doi: 10.1016/0003-9969(95)00098-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tuxen A, Bakke M, Pinholt EM. Comparative data from young men and women on masseter fibers, function and facial morphology. Arch Oral Biol. 1999;44:509–18. doi: 10.1016/S0003-9969(99)00008-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Youmans SR, Stierwalt JAG. Measures of tongue function related to normal swallowing. Dysphagia. 2006;21:102–11. doi: 10.1007/s00455-006-9013-z.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stierwalt JA, Youmans SR. Tongue measures in individuals with normal and impaired swallowing. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2007;16:148–56. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2007/019).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Kahrilas PJ. Oropharyngeal swallow in younger and older women: videofluoroscopic analysis. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2002;45:434–45. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2002/034).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Robbins J, Hamilton JW, Lof GL, Kempster GB. Oropharyngeal swallowing in normal adults of different ages. Gastroenterology. 1992;103:823–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    van Herwaarden MA, Katz PO, Gideon RM, Barrett J, Castell JA, Achem S, et al. Are manometric parameters of the upper esophageal sphincter and pharynx affected by age and gender? Dysphagia. 2003;18:211–17. doi: 10.1007/s00455-002-0099-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mendell DA, Logemann JA. Temporal sequence of swallow events during the orophagyngeal swallow. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2007;50:1256–71. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2007/088).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lawless HT, Bender S, Oman C, Pelletier C. Gender, age, vessel size, cup vs straw sipping, and sequence effects on sip volume. Dysphagia. 2003;18:196–202. doi: 10.1007/s00455-002-0105-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim Y, McCullough GH. Maximum hyoid displacement in normal swallowing. Dysphagia. 2008;23:274–79. doi: 10.1007/s00455-007-9135-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Oliveira Dantas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rachel de Aguiar Cassiani
    • 1
  • Carla Manfredi dos Santos
    • 1
  • Geruza Costa Gonzaga
    • 1
  • Leda Maria Tavares Alves
    • 1
  • Suleimy Cristina Mazin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Medical School of Ribeirão PretoUniversity of São PauloRibeirao PretoBrazil

Personalised recommendations