, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 149–156 | Cite as

Timing of Pharyngeal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Pressures as a Function of Normal and Effortful Swallowing in Young Healthy Adults

  • Susan G. Hiss
  • Maggie Lee Huckabee


The effect of effortful swallow on pharyngeal pressure and UES relaxation onsets and durations was examined. Eighteen adults, nine males and nine females (mean age = 27.9 yr), participated. Timing of pharyngeal pressure and onset and duration of UES relaxation were measured across ten trials of normal and ten trials of effortful swallows. Results revealed that manometric timing measurements are consistent across trials. The first and second statistical analyses investigated the pharyngeal pressure and UES relaxation onsets and durations, respectively. Both analyses identified a significant interaction of swallow type (i.e., effortful vs. normal) by manometric sensor location (p < 0.05). Across normal and effortful swallows, UES relaxation preceded pharyngeal pressure onsets, yet the rate of change (or degree of delay) varied across the sensors. Furthermore, the effortful swallow elicited longer pharyngeal pressure and UES relaxation durations, yet the pressure duration measured in the upper pharynx was significantly longer than that measured lower in the pharynx. These findings offer insight as to the potential positive and negative influence of the effortful swallow on pharyngeal timing.


Pharyngeal Upper esophageal sphincter Effortful swallow Pressure Deglutition Deglutition disorders 



We would like to acknowledge the support of Bill Roche and the financial support of St. Joseph’s Medical Center Grant Funds, Paterson, NJ, USA.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology, Center for Voice and Swallowing DisordersWake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  2. 2.Department of Communication DisordersUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand
  3. 3.Center for Voice and Swallowing Disorders, Department of OtolaryngologyWake Forest University School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA

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