Algorithmic Aspects of Proportional Symbol Maps
- 490 Downloads
Proportional symbol maps visualize numerical data associated with point locations by placing a scaled symbol—typically an opaque disk or square—at the corresponding point on a map. The area of each symbol is proportional to the numerical value associated with its location. Every visually meaningful proportional symbol map will contain at least some overlapping symbols. These need to be drawn in such a way that the user can still judge their relative sizes accurately.
We identify two types of suitable drawings: physically realizable drawings and stacking drawings. For these we study the following two problems: Max-Min—maximize the minimum visible boundary length of each symbol—and Max-Total—maximize the total visible boundary length over all symbols. We show that both problems are NP-hard for physically realizable drawings. Max-Min can be solved in O(n 2log n) time for stacking drawings, which can be improved to O(nlog n) time when the input has certain properties. We also implemented several methods to compute stacking drawings: our solution to the Max-Min problem performs best on the data sets considered.
KeywordsGeometric algorithms NP-hardness Cartography
- 4.Demaine, E.D., Mitchell, J.S.B., O’Rourke, J.: The open problems project. Problem 33. http://maven.smith.edu/orourke/TOPP/P33.html
- 5.Dent, B.: Cartography—Thematic Map Design, 5th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (1999) Google Scholar
- 6.Fortnow, L.: Computational Complexity Blog. Post of Friday, February 14, 2003. http://weblog.fortnow.com/archive/2003_02_01_archive.html
- 8.Giora, Y., Kaplan, H.: Optimal dynamic vertical ray shooting in rectilinear planar subdivisions. In: Proceedings of the 18th ACM-SIAM Symposium on Discrete Algorithms, pp. 19–28 (2007) Google Scholar
- 9.Griffin, T.: The importance of visual contrast for graduated circles. Cartography 19(1), 21–30 (1990) Google Scholar
- 10.Groop, R.E., Cole, D.: Overlapping graduated circles: Magnitude estimation and method of portrayal. Can. Cartogr. 15(2), 114–122 (1978) Google Scholar
- 16.NOAA Satellite and Information Service. National geophysical data center, 2005. http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov
- 17.Queensland University Advanced Centre for Earthquake Studies. http://www.quakes.uq.edu.au
- 19.Slocum, T.A., McMaster, R.B., Kessler, F.C., Howard, H.H.: Thematic Cartography and Geographic Visualization, 2nd edn. Prentice Hall, New York (2003) Google Scholar