Algorithmica

, 56:129

# Geometric Representation of Graphs in Low Dimension Using Axis Parallel Boxes

• L. Sunil Chandran
• Mathew C. Francis
Article

## Abstract

An axis-parallel k-dimensional box is a Cartesian product R 1×R 2×⋅⋅⋅×R k where R i (for 1≤ik) is a closed interval of the form [a i ,b i ] on the real line. For a graph G, its boxicity box (G) is the minimum dimension k, such that G is representable as the intersection graph of (axis-parallel) boxes in k-dimensional space. The concept of boxicity finds applications in various areas such as ecology, operations research etc.

A number of NP-hard problems are either polynomial time solvable or have much better approximation ratio on low boxicity graphs. For example, the max-clique problem is polynomial time solvable on bounded boxicity graphs and the maximum independent set problem for boxicity d graphs, given a box representation, has a $$\lfloor 1+\frac{1}{c}\log n\rfloor^{d-1}$$ approximation ratio for any constant c≥1 when d≥2. In most cases, the first step usually is computing a low dimensional box representation of the given graph. Deciding whether the boxicity of a graph is at most 2 itself is NP-hard.

We give an efficient randomized algorithm to construct a box representation of any graph G on n vertices in ⌈(Δ+2)ln n⌉ dimensions, where Δ is the maximum degree of G. This algorithm implies that box (G)≤⌈(Δ+2)ln n⌉ for any graph G. Our bound is tight up to a factor of ln n.

We also show that our randomized algorithm can be derandomized to get a polynomial time deterministic algorithm.

Though our general upper bound is in terms of maximum degree Δ, we show that for almost all graphs on n vertices, their boxicity is O(d av ln n) where d av is the average degree.

## Keywords

Boxicity Randomized algorithm Derandomization Random graph Intersection graphs

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## Authors and Affiliations

• L. Sunil Chandran
• 1
Email author
• Mathew C. Francis
• 1