Application of the ParalleX execution model to stencil-based problems

  • T. HellerEmail author
  • H. Kaiser
  • K. Iglberger
Special Issue Paper


In the prospect of the upcoming exa-scale era with millions of execution units, the question of how to deal with this level of parallelism efficiently is of time-critical relevance. State-of-the-Art parallelization techniques such as OpenMP and MPI are not guaranteed to solve the expected problems of starvation, growing latencies, overheads, and contention. On the other hand, new parallelization paradigms promise to efficiently hide latencies and contain starvation and contention.

In this paper we analyze the performance of one novel parallelization strategy for shared and distributed memory machines. We will focus on shared memory architectures and compare the performance of the ParalleX execution model against the quasi-standard OpenMP for a standard stencil-based problem. We compare in detail the OpenMP implementation of two applications of Jacobi solvers (one based on regular grid and one based on an irregular grid structure) with the corresponding implementation of these applications using HPX (High Performance ParalleX), the first feature-complete, open-source implementation of ParalleX, and analyze the results of both implementations on a multi-socket NUMA node.


Iterative solvers ParalleX Execution model High Performance ParalleX (HPX) OpenMP Parallel algorithms Parallel runtime systems Dataflow 



We thank Matthew Anderson for helpful discussions and for preparing the irregular grids we used. We thank Georg Hager for optimizing the OpenMP usage and for suggesting the applied performance model. We acknowledge the support from the Center for Computation and Technology (CCT) at Louisiana State University (LSU) and from NSF grants (1029161, 1117470) to LSU.


  1. 1.
    Kaiser H, Brodowicz M, Sterling T (2009) ParalleX: An advanced parallel execution model for scaling-impaired applications. In: Parallel processing workshops. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, pp 394–401. doi: 10.1109/ICPPW.2009.14 Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Brookes SD, Hoare CAR, Roscoe AW (1984) A theory of communicating sequential processes. J ACM 31(3):560–599 MathSciNetzbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Message Passing Interface Forum (2009) MPI: a message-passing interface standard, version 2.2. High Performance Computing Center Stuttgart (HLRS), Stuttgart, Germany Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dagum L, Menon R (1998) OpenMP: An industry-standard API for shared-memory programming. IEEE Comput Sci Eng 5(1):46–55. doi: 10.1109/99.660313 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    STE||AR Group (2011) Systems Technologies, Emerging Parallelism, and Algorithms Research.
  6. 6.
    Anderson M, Brodowicz M, Kaiser H, Sterling TL (2011) An application driven analysis of the ParalleX execution model. CoRR abs/1109.5201.
  7. 7.
    Boost: a collection of free peer-reviewed portable C++ source libraries (2011).
  8. 8.
    Baker HC, Hewitt C (1977) The incremental garbage collection of processes. In: SIGART bull. ACM Press, New York, pp 55–59. doi: 10.1145/872736.806932. 10.1145/872736.806932 Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Friedman DP, Wise DS (1976) Cons should not evaluate its arguments. In: ICALP, pp 257–284 Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Papadopoulos G, Culler D (1990) Monsoon: an explicit token-store architecture. In: 17th International symposium on computer architecture, no. 18(2) in ACM SIGARCH computer architecture news, May 28–31. ACM Digital Library, Seattle, Washington, Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barrett R, Berry M, Chan TF, Demmel J, Donato J, Dongarra J, Eijkhout V, Pozo R, Romine C, der Vorst HV (1994) Templates for the solution of linear systems: building blocks for iterative methods, 2nd edn. SIAM, Philadelphia CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hager G, Wellein G (2010) Introduction to high performance computing for scientists and engineers, 1st edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Janna C, Ferronato M (2011) Janna/Serena sparse matrix.
  14. 14.
    Ferronato M, Gambolati G, Janna C, Teatini P (2010) Geomechanical issues of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration in exploited gas fields. Energy Convers Manag 51(10):1918–1928. doi: 10.1007/s00450-012-0217-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Triebig J (2012) Likwid: Linux tools to support programmers in developing high performance multi-threaded programs.
  16. 16.
    McCalpin JD (2012) STREAM: Sustainable memory bandwidth in high performance computers. A continually updated technical report, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (1991–2007).

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-NurembergErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Center for Computation and TechnologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations