Advertisement

Development and economic evaluation of an eco-friendly biocatalytic synthesis of emollient esters

  • Mar Serrano-ArnaldosEmail author
  • María Claudia Montiel
  • Salvadora Ortega-Requena
  • Fuensanta Máximo
  • Josefa Bastida
Research Paper
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

During the past decades the understanding and prospects of enzyme-catalysed reactions have been massively widened and there are a number of implemented large-scale enzymatic processes mainly based in the use of commercial biocatalysts. As it might happen that the same process can be successfully carried out by different commercial lipases, the election of the biocatalyst must rely on productivity and economic considerations. This work presents productiveness and direct operation cost evaluation as a key tool for the selection between two commercial lipase catalysts, the versatile but expensive Novozym® 435 and a much more economical option, Lipozyme® TL IM, in the synthesis of spermaceti, a mixture of emollient esters with cosmetic applications. Proving that Novozym® 435 leads to minimum savings of 10% with respect to the cheapest immobilized derivative, biocatalyst cost does not appear to be the major contribution to the economics of the processes under study, due to their great capacity to be recovered and reused. At laboratory scale, the biggest economic investment is caused by substrates, which can be massively reduced at industrial scale by using bulk reagents. In such case, energy cost may be the major contribution to the process economy. This work proposes an optimized process ready to be scaled-up in order to accurately determine the energetic requirements of the possible industrial enzymatic synthesis.

Keywords

Candida antarctica Thermomyces lanuginosus Solvent-free Spermaceti Cost assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (CTQ2015-66723-R) and the European Commission (FEDER/ERDF). M. Serrano-Arnaldos and S. Ortega-Requena were beneficiaries of a FPI pre-doctoral scholarship from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) and a Torres Quevedo grant, respectively. We wish to acknowledge D. Ramiro Martínez Gutiérrez (Novozymes Spain S.A.) who kindly supplied the biocatalysts.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Antonopoulou I, Varriale S, Topakas E et al (2016) Enzymatic synthesis of bioactive compounds with high potential for cosmeceutical application. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:6519–6543.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7647-9 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ye R, Hayes DG, Burton R et al (2016) Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed synthesis of technical-grade sugar esters and evaluation of their physicochemical and bioactive properties. Catalysts 6:78.  https://doi.org/10.3390/catal6060078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yvergnaux F (2017) Lipases: particularly effective biocatalysts for cosmetic active ingredients. Ocl-Oilseeds Fats Crops Lipids 24:D408.  https://doi.org/10.1051/ocl/2017013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grunwald P (2014) Industrial biocatalysis. CRC Press, Boca Raton (FL)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hilterhaus L, Liese A, Kettling U, Antranikian G (2016) Applied biocatalysis: from fundamental science to industrial applications. WileyGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Daiha KG, Angeli R, Oliveira SD, Almeida RV (2015) Are lipases still important biocatalysts? A Study of scientific publications and patents for technological forecasting. PLoS ONE ONE 10:e0131624.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0131624 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Borole AP, Davison BH (2007) Techno-economic analysis of biocatalytic processes for production of alkene epoxides. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 137–140:437–449.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-007-9070-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mustafa A, Karmali A, Abdelmoez W (2016) Optimisation and economic assessment of lipase-catalysed production of monoesters using Rhizomucor miehei lipase in a solvent-free system. J Clean Prod 137:953–964.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.07.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernández-Lafuente R (2010) Lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus: Uses and prospects as an industrial biocatalyst. J Mol Catal B-Enzym 62:197–212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2009.11.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Novozymes A/S Biocatalysis for a sustainable pharma future—Novozymes. https://www.novozymes.com/en/advance-your-business/pharma. Accessed 9 Jan 2019
  11. 11.
    Bansode SR, Hardikar MA, Rathod VK (2017) Evaluation of reaction parameters and kinetic modelling for Novozym 435 catalysed synthesis of isoamyl butyrate. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 92:1306–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.5125 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koutinas M, Yiangou C, Osório NM et al (2018) Application of commercial and non-commercial immobilized lipases for biocatalytic production of ethyl lactate in organic solvents. Bioresour Technol 247:496–503.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.130 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Madarasz J, Nemeth D, Bakos J et al (2015) Solvent-free enzymatic process for biolubricant production in continuous microfluidic reactor. J Clean Prod 93:140–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.01.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cirillo NA, Quirrenbach CG, Corazza ML, Pedersen Voll FA (2018) Enzymatic kinetics of cetyl palmitate synthesis in a solvent-free system. Biochem Eng J 137:116–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2018.05.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lima LCD, Peres DGC, Mendes AA (2018) Kinetic and thermodynamic studies on the enzymatic synthesis of wax ester catalyzed by lipase immobilized on glutaraldehyde-activated rice husk particles. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 41:991–1002.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-018-1929-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Montiel MC, Serrano M, Máximo MF et al (2015) Synthesis of cetyl ricinoleate catalyzed by immobilized Lipozyme® CalB lipase in a solvent-free system. Catal Today 255:49–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cattod.2014.09.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Serrano-Arnaldos M, Maximo-Martin MF, Montiel-Morte MC et al (2016) Solvent-free enzymatic production of high quality cetyl esters. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 39:641–649.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-016-1545-5 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Veit T (2004) Biocatalysis for the production of cosmetic ingredients. Eng Life Sci 4:508–511.  https://doi.org/10.1002/elsc.200402148 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wellendorf M (1963) Composition of spermaceti. Nature 198:1086–1087.  https://doi.org/10.1038/1981086b0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Serrano-Arnaldos M, Bastida J, Máximo F et al (2018) One-Step Solvent-free production of a spermaceti analogue using commercial immobilized lipases. ChemistrySelect 3:748–752.  https://doi.org/10.1002/slct.201702332 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tufvesson P, Lima-Ramos J, Nordblad M, Woodley JM (2011) Guidelines and cost analysis for catalyst production in biocatalytic processes. Org Process Res Dev 15:266–274.  https://doi.org/10.1021/op1002165 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ortega-Requena S, Bódalo-Santoyo A, Bastida-Rodríguez J et al (2014) Optimized enzymatic synthesis of the food additive polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) using Novozym® 435 in a solvent free system. Biochem Eng J 84:91–97.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2014.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    ASTM D974-02e1 (2002) Standard test method for acid and base number by color-indicator titration. ASTM Int, West Conshohocken, PAGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Martins AB, da Silva AM, Schein MF et al (2014) Comparison of the performance of commercial immobilized lipases in the synthesis of different flavor esters. J Mol Catal B-Enzym 105:18–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2014.03.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Aguieiras ECG, Veloso CO, Bevilaqua JV et al (2011) Estolides synthesis catalyzed by immobilized lipases. Enzyme Res 2011:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.4061/2011/432746 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Anderson EM, Larsson KM, Kirk O (1998) One biocatalyst-many applications: the use of Candida Antarctica B-lipase in organic synthesis. Biocatal Biotransformation 16:181–204.  https://doi.org/10.3109/10242429809003198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Basri M, Kassim MA, Mohamad R, Ariff AB (2013) Optimization and kinetic study on the synthesis of palm oil ester using Lipozyme TL IM. J Mol Catal B Enzym 85–86:214–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2012.09.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Choi N, Kim Y, Lee J-S et al (2016) Synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from acid oil in a continuous reactor via an enzymatic transesterification. J Am Oil Chem Soc 93:311–318.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-016-2786-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dianóczki C, Recseg K, Kővári K, Poppe L (2007) Convenient enzymatic preparation of conjugated linoleic acid alkyl esters with C6–C22 alcohols. J Mol Catal B Enzym 45:45–49.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcatb.2006.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Comisión Nacional de los Mercados y la Competencia (2016) Boletín de indicadores eléctricos 2016Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Brennan DJ (2004) Developing a process industry culture. Morgan PrintingGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM). https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/tgm/refreshTableAction.do?tab=table&plugin=1&pcode=ten00117&language=en. Accessed 13 Dec 2018
  33. 33.
    Jiménez-González C, Constable DJC (2011) Green chemistry and engineering: a practical design approach. WileyGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vogel GH (2014) Production cost estimation. Ullmanns Encycl. Ind, ChemGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bermúdez JM, Beneroso D, Rey-Raap N et al (2015) Energy consumption estimation in the scaling-up of microwave heating processes. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 95:1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cep.2015.05.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
    Lauric acid, 99%, ACROS Organics - Organic Building Blocks Chemicals. https://www.fishersci.es/shop/products/lauric-acid-99-acros-organics-5/p-3736787. Accessed 3 Sep 2018
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
    Cetyl Alcohol Fatty Alcohol C1698 Supplier From India. https://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Cetyl-Alcohol-Fatty-Alcohol-C1698-Supplier_146547456.html. Accessed 6 Sep 2018
  42. 42.
    High quality cosmetic material Lauric acid 99%, Product Details from Guangzhou Kaoking Chemical Co., Ltd. https://kao.en.alibaba.com/product/60399285976-802337594/high_quality_cosmetic_material_Lauric_acid_99_price.html?spm=a2700.8304367.prewdfa4cf.2.207346f37aIcYF. Accessed 6 Sep 2018
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
    High quality cosmetic material Stearic acid, Product Details from Guangzhou Kaoking Chemical Co., Ltd. https://kao.en.alibaba.com/product/60439480037-802394266/high_quality_cosemtic_material_Stearic_acid.html?spm=a2700.8304367.prewdfa4cf.2.28c79411Vzc7eM. Accessed 6 Sep 2018

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of MurciaMurciaSpain

Personalised recommendations