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Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 41, Issue 11, pp 1665–1677 | Cite as

Influence of silver nanoparticles on the enhancement and transcriptional changes of glucosinolates and phenolic compounds in genetically transformed root cultures of Brassica rapa ssp. rapa

  • Ill-Min Chung
  • Kaliyaperumal Rekha
  • Govindasamy Rajakumar
  • Muthu Thiruvengadam
Research Paper

Abstract

Glucosinolates (GSLs) and phenolic compounds (PCs) are biologically active and involved in the defense reaction of plants; these compounds have a beneficial effect on human health. In this study, we described the influence of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to enhance the phytochemicals (GSLs and PCs), their transcription levels, and their biological activities in genetically transformed root cultures (hairy root cultures) of Brassica rapa. The concentrations of silver and reactive oxygen species (malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide) were highly elevated in the Ag NP-elicited hairy roots (HRs). Glucosinolates (glucoallysin, glucobrassicanapin, sinigrin, progoitrin, gluconapin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassicin, and gluconasturtiin) and their transcripts (MYB34, MYB51, MYB28, and MYB29) were significantly enhanced in the Ag NP-elicited HRs. Moreover, the phenolic compounds (flavonols, hydroxybenzoic, and hydroxycinnamic acids) were significantly enriched in the Ag NP-elicited HRs. Total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations and their transcripts (PAL, CHI, and FLS) were higher in the Ag NP-elicited HRs than in the non-elicited HRs. Additionally, biological (antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer) activities were significantly higher in the Ag NP-elicited HRs than in the non-elicited HRs. The Ag NP-elicited HR cultures offered an efficient and promising in vitro method to increase the production of health-promoting bioactive compounds, which may be useful in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords

Gene expression Glucosinolates Hairy root cultures Phenolic compounds Silver nanoparticles 

Abbreviations

Ag NPs

Silver nanoparticles

DPPH

1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl

GSLs

Glucosinolates

HRCs

Hairy root cultures

HRs

Hairy roots

IPCs

Individual phenolic compounds

ICP-MS

Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

MDA

Malondialdehyde

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

MTT

Thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide

PCs

Phenolic compounds

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RT-PCR

Real-time polymerase chain reaction

TFC

Total flavonoid content

TPC

Total phenolic content

UHPLC–TQMS

Ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

UHPLC

Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography

Notes

Acknowledgements

This paper was supported by the KU Research Professor Program of Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ill-Min Chung
    • 1
  • Kaliyaperumal Rekha
    • 2
  • Govindasamy Rajakumar
    • 1
  • Muthu Thiruvengadam
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Bioscience, College of Life and Environmental SciencesKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Department of Environmental and Herbal ScienceTamil UniversityThanjavurIndia

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