Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 345–352 | Cite as

Process development of oxalic acid production in submerged culture of Aspergillus niger F22 and its biocontrol efficacy against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

  • Sang Il Lee
  • Keon Jin Lee
  • Ho Hyun Chun
  • Sanghyun Ha
  • Hyun Jung Gwak
  • Ho Myeong Kim
  • Jong-Hee Lee
  • Hak-Jong Choi
  • Hyeong Hwan Kim
  • Teak Soo Shin
  • Hae Woong ParkEmail author
  • Jin-Cheol KimEmail author
Research Paper


Oxalic acid has potent nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, fermentation parameters for oxalic acid production in submerged culture of Aspergillus niger F22 at 23, 25, and 30 °C were optimized in 5-L jar fermenters. The viscosity of the culture broth increased with increasing temperature. There was a negative correlation between oxalic acid production and the apparent viscosity; high volumetric productivity of oxalic acid was obtained at low apparent viscosity (less than 1000 cP), with a productivity of more than 100 mg/L h. When the apparent viscosity was over 2500 cP, the volumetric productivity decreased below 50 mg/L h. In addition, the volumetric mass transfer coefficient, K L a, positively correlated with volumetric productivity. When the K L a value increased from 0.0 to 0.017 /s, the volumetric productivity proportionally increased up to 176 mg/L h. When the temperature decreased, K L a increased due to the decrease in viscosity, leading to increased volumetric productivity. The highest productivity of 7453.3 mg/L was obtained at the lowest temperature, i.e., 23 °C. The nematicidal activity of culture filtrate was proportional to the content of oxalic acid. Based on a constant impeller tip speed, oxalic acid production was successfully scaled up to a 500-L pilot vessel, producing a final concentration comparable to that in the 5-L jar.


Aspergillus niger F22 Oxalic acid Viscosity Volumetric mass transfer rate Temperature 



This research was supported by grants from the Rural Development Administration (PJ01020703) and the World Institute of Kimchi (KE1701-1), funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning, Republic of Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of this manuscript declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sang Il Lee
    • 1
  • Keon Jin Lee
    • 1
  • Ho Hyun Chun
    • 1
  • Sanghyun Ha
    • 1
  • Hyun Jung Gwak
    • 1
  • Ho Myeong Kim
    • 1
  • Jong-Hee Lee
    • 1
  • Hak-Jong Choi
    • 1
  • Hyeong Hwan Kim
    • 2
  • Teak Soo Shin
    • 3
  • Hae Woong Park
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jin-Cheol Kim
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.R&D DivisionWorld Institute of KimchiGwangjuRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development AdministrationWanjuRepublic of Korea
  3. 3.Farm HannongNonsanRepublic of Korea
  4. 4.Division of Applied Bioscience and BiotechnologyChonnam National UniversityGwangjuRepublic of Korea

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