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Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 37, Issue 6, pp 1017–1029 | Cite as

Simultaneous single-cell protein production and COD removal with characterization of residual protein and intermediate metabolites during whey fermentation by K. marxianus

  • J. S. S. Yadav
  • J. Bezawada
  • S. Elharche
  • S. Yan
  • R. D. TyagiEmail author
  • R. Y. Surampalli
Original Paper

Abstract

Cheese whey fermentation with Kluyveromyces marxianus was carried out at 40 °C and pH 3.5 to examine simultaneous single-cell protein production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, determine the fate of soluble whey protein and characterize intermediate metabolites. After 36 h of batch fermentation, the biomass concentration increased from 2.0 to 6.0 g/L with 55 % COD reduction (including protein), whereas soluble whey protein concentration decreased from 5.6 to 4.1 g/L. It was confirmed through electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) that the fermented whey protein was different from native whey protein. HPLC and GC–MS analysis revealed a change in composition of organic compounds post-fermentation. High inoculum concentration in batch fermentation resulted in an increase in biomass concentration from 10.3 to 15.9 g/L with 80 % COD reduction (including protein) within 36 h with residual protein concentration of 4.5 g/L. In third batch fermentation, the biomass concentration increased from 7.3 to 12.4 g/L with 71 % of COD removal and residual protein concentration of 4.3 g/L after 22 h. After 22 h, the batch process was shifted to a continuous process with cell recycle, and the steady state was achieved after another 60 h with biomass yield of 0.19 g biomass/g lactose and productivity of 0.26 g/L h. COD removal efficiency was 78–79 % with residual protein concentration of 3.8–4.2 g/L. The aerobic continuous fermentation process with cell recycle could be applied to single-cell protein production with substantial COD removal at low pH and high temperature from cheese whey.

Keywords

Single-cell protein Cheese whey COD Whey protein Intermediate metabolites Cell recycle 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are sincerely thankful to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Grant A4984, RDCPJ379601-08, and Canada Research Chair) for their financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. S. S. Yadav
    • 1
  • J. Bezawada
    • 1
  • S. Elharche
    • 2
  • S. Yan
    • 1
  • R. D. Tyagi
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Y. Surampalli
    • 3
  1. 1.Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, Institut National de la Recherche ScientifiqueUniversité du QuébecQuebecCanada
  2. 2.Institut Supérieur des Hautes Études en Développement DurableRabatMorocco
  3. 3.USEPAKansas CityUSA

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