Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 35–45

Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: process design and economic analysis

Original Paper

Abstract

Process design and economics are considered for conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. A particular site, a bleached kraft mill operated in Gorham, NH by Fraser Papers (15 tons dry sludge processed per day), is considered. In addition, profitability is examined for a larger plant (50 dry tons per day) and sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to capacity, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Conversion based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with intermittent feeding is examined, with ethanol recovery provided by distillation and molecular sieve adsorption. It was found that the Fraser plant achieves positive cash flow with or without xylose conversion and mineral recovery. Sensitivity analysis indicates economics are very sensitive to ethanol selling price and scale; significant but less sensitive to the tipping fee, and rather insensitive to the prices of cellulase and power. Internal rates of return exceeding 15% are projected for larger plants at most combinations of scale, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Our analysis lends support to the proposition that paper sludge is a leading point-of-entry and proving ground for emergent industrial processes featuring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

References

  1. 1.
    Lynd LR, Wyman CE, Gerngross TU (1999) Biocommodity engineering. Biotechnol Prog 15:777–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Duff SJB, Moritz JW, Anderson KL (1994) Simultaneous hydrolysis and fermentation of pulp mill primary clarifier sludge. Can J Chem Eng 72:1013–1020CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Duff SJB, Moritz JW, Casavant TE (1995) Effect of surfactant and particle size reduction on hydrolysis of deinking sludge and nonrecyclable new print. Biotechnol Bioeng 45:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jeffries TW, Schartman R (1999) Bioconversion of secondary fiber fines to ethanol using counter-current enzymatic saccharification and co-fermentation. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 77–79:435–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Katzen R, Fowler DE (1994) Ethanol from lignocellulosic wastes with utilization of recombinant bacteria. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 45/46:697–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lark N, Xia Y, Qin CG, Gong CS, Tsao GT (1997) Production of ethanol from recycled paper sludge using cellulase and yeast, Kluveromyces Marxianus. Biomass Bioenergy 12:135–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lynd LR, Lyford K, South CR, van Walsum P, Levenson K (2001) Evaluation of paper sludge for amenability to enzymatic hydrolysis and conversion to ethanol. TAPPI J 84:50–55Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fan Z, South C, Lyford K, Munsie J, van Walsum P, Lynd LR (2003) Conversion of Paper sludge to ethanol in a semicontinuous solids-fed reactor. Biopro Biosystems Eng 26:93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Appelqvist B (2000) Combining mineral recovery with ethanol production from paper sludge. Master Thesis Lund Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang M, Eddy C, Deanda K, Finkelstein M, Picataggio S (1995) Metabolic engineering of a pentose metabolism pathway in ethanologenic Zymomonous mobilis. Science 267:240–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ho NWY, Chen Z, Brainard AP (1998) Genetically engineered Saccharomyces yeast capable of effective co fermentation of glucose and xylose. Appl Environ Microbiol 64:1852–1859Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuyper M, Hartog MMP, Toirkens MJ, Almering MJH, Winkler AA, Van Dijken JP, Pronk JT (2005) Metabolic engineering of a xylose-isomerase-expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain for rapid anaerobic xylose fermentation. FEMS Yeast Res 5:399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ohta K, Beall DS, Mejia JP, Shanmugam KT, Ingram LO (1991) Genetic improvement of Escherichia coli for ethanol production: chromosomal integration of Zymomonas mobilis genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase II. Appl Environ Microbiol 57:893–900Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wooley R, Ruth M, Sheehan J, Ibsen K, Majdeski H (1999) Lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol process design and economics utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis current and futuristic scenarios. Technical report No: NREL-TP-580–26157, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, GoldenGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aden A, Ruth M, Ibsen K, Jechura J, Neeves K, Sheehan J, Wallace B (2001) Lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol process design and economics utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis for corn stover Technical report No: NREL/TP-510–32438, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, GoldenGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological Systems EngineeringVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Program Thayer School of EngineeringDartmouth CollegeHanoverGermany
  3. 3.Biological ScienceDartmouth CollegeHanoverGermany

Personalised recommendations