Replenishment of a mafic magma in a zoned felsic magma chamber beneath Rishiri Volcano, Japan
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The trachytic Tanetomi lava from Rishiri Volcano, northern Japan, provides useful information concerning how a replenished mafic magma mixes with a compositionally zoned felsic magma in a magma chamber. The Tanetomi lava was erupted in the order of Lower lava 1 (LL1, 59.2–59.8 wt.% in SiO2), Lower lava 2 (LL2, 58.4–59.1 wt.%), and Upper lava (UL, 59.9–65.1 wt.%). Evidence for mixing with a mafic magma is observed only in the LL2, in which a greater amount of crystals derived from the mafic magma occurs in rocks with higher SiO2 content. The whole-rock compositional trend of the Tanetomi lavas is fairly smooth except for the LL2 lava composition, which scatter along the main composition trend. There is no reasonable composition of basaltic magma on the extrapolation of the LL2 composition trend, and the trend cannot be explained by a simple two-component magma mixing. Before the replenishment, the felsic magma was zoned in composition (58–65 wt.% in SiO2) and temperature (1030–920°C) in the magma chamber located at the pressure of ~2 kbar. The compositional variation of the main felsic magma was produced by extraction of a fractionated interstitial melt from mush zones along the chamber walls and its subsequent mixing with the main magma (boundary layer fractionation). The LL1 magma tapped the magma chamber soon after the replenishment, before the mafic magma mixed with the overall felsic magma. Then the basalt magma mixed heterogeneously with the upper part of the felsic magma by forced convection as a fountain during injection. The mixing of the basalt magma with compositionally zoned felsic magma resulted in the characteristic composition trend of the LL2. The fraction of basaltic magma in the LL2 magma is estimated to be at most 10%. Despite such a small proportion, the basalt magma was mixed completely with the felsic magma, probably because the crystallinity of undercooled basalt magma was low enough to behave as a liquid.
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