Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, 82:14 | Cite as

Geology and eruptive history of Bogoslof volcano

  • Christopher F. WaythomasEmail author
  • Matthew Loewen
  • Kristi L. Wallace
  • Cheryl E. Cameron
  • Jessica F. Larsen
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The 2016-17 shallow submarine eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska

Abstract

Bogoslof volcano is a shallow submarine/subaerial volcano in the southern Bering Sea about 100 km west of the community of Dutch Harbor, Alaska. The subaerial parts of the volcano consist of two small islands, Bogoslof Island and Fire Island, that together have a total area of about 1.6 km2. Bogoslof was first depicted on a Russian map in 1772 and since then has been observed and visited occasionally. The volcano has had at least nine periods of eruptive activity since 1796 and all of its historical eruptions have been similar in style. Historical Bogoslof eruptions involved the effusion of basalt, trachybasalt, basaltic trachyandesite, and trachyandesite lava domes with above sea level relief of 100–200 m. Many of the eruptions are accompanied by the formation of tuff rings and ejection of ballistic particles. Historical observations suggest that eruption clouds are relatively ash-poor. Minor ash fallout has typically occurred within about 100 km of the volcano. Many of the historical eruptions began at vents that were below sea level, and thus, seawater has played an important role in the style of eruptive activity exhibited by the volcano. At times, eruptive activity has been characterized by Surtseyan style eruptions and magma interaction with wet vent-fill deposits. At other times, the eruptive style has been more magmatically driven and has resulted in the formation of pyroclastic flows and small ash clouds. Preliminary studies of the deposits produced during the 2016–2017 eruption indicate vertical sequences of coarse-grained, horizontally bedded pyroclastic flow and fall deposits with numerous blocks, bombs, and lapilli of dense juvenile and accidental lithic material. These deposits were emplaced by near-vent pyroclastic flows, surges, and explosions some of which originated from shallow, highly crystalline cryptodomes.

Keywords

Bogoslof volcano Lava domes Submarine eruption Tuff ring Historical activity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The response to eruptive activity in Alaska by AVO is very much a team effort. Many more individuals than are listed in the author list made important contributions to understanding the 2016–2017 eruption. We thank them all! Thoughtful reviews of the manuscript were provided by M. Jutzeler and J. White and we appreciate the many helpful suggestions for improving the paper.

Supplementary material

445_2019_1352_MOESM1_ESM.png (8.6 mb)
ESM 1 (PNG 8814 kb)
445_2019_1352_MOESM2_ESM.png (2.3 mb)
ESM 2 (PNG 2379 kb)

References

  1. Allen SR, Fiske RS, Cashman KV (2008) Quenching of steam-charged pumice: implications for submarine pyroclastic volcanism. Earth Planet Sci Lett 274(1–2):40–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arculus RJ, Delong SE, Kay RW, Brooks C, Sun SS (1977) The alkalic rock suite of Bogoslof Island, eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska. J Geol 85:177–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin-Erickson A, Büttner R, Dellino P, Ort MH, Zimanowski B (2008) Phreatomagmatic explosions of rhyolitic magma: experimental and field evidence. J Geophys Res Solid Earth 113(B11):B11201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baker M (1906) Geographic dictionary of Alaska. US Geol Surv Bull 299 [Also available at https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publicatio.n/b299]
  5. Becker GF, (1898) Reconnaissance of the gold fields of southern Alaska, with some notes on general geology, in Walcott CD, ed. Eighteenth annual report—Part III—Economic geology: U.S. Geological Survey Annual Report 0018, p. 1–86.Google Scholar
  6. Bergsland K (1994) Aleut dictionary (Unangam Tunudgusii)—an unabridged lexicon of the Aleutian, Pribilof, and Commander Islands Aleut language. Univ Alaska-Fairbanks, Alaska Native Language CenterGoogle Scholar
  7. Byers FM Jr (1959) Geology of Umnak and Bogoslof Islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. US Geol Surv Bull 1028-L:267–369Google Scholar
  8. Byers FM Jr (1961) Petrology of three volcanic suites, Umnak and Bogoslof islands, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. Geol Soc Am Bull 72:93–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Calder ES, Lavallée Y, Kendrick JE, Bernstein M (2015) Lava dome eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) The encyclopedia of volcanoes, 2nd edn, pp 343–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Clarke A, Esposti Ongaro T, Belousov A (2015) Vulcanian eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) The encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, pp 505–518Google Scholar
  11. Cook J (1785) A voyage to the Pacific Ocean, vol 2. H Hughes, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Coombs ML, Wech AG, Haney MM, Lyons JJ, Schneider DJ, Schwaiger HF (2018) Short-term forecasting and detection of explosions during the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Front Earth Sci 6:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coombs ML, Wallace K, Cameron C, Lyons JJ, Wech A, Angeli K, Cervelli P (2019) Overview, chronology, and impacts of the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Bull Volcanol 81:62–23.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-019-1322-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dall WH (1884) A new volcano island in Alaska. Science 3:89–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Davidson G (1884) The new Bogoslof volcano in the Bering Sea. Science 3:282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Diller JS (1884) Volcanic sand which fell at Unalashka, Alaska, Oct. 20, 1883, and some considerations concerning its composition. Science 3:651–654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dunn R (1908) On the chase for volcanoes, I—through the fires of the world’s youngest island. Outing Magazine 51:442–454Google Scholar
  18. Eakle AS (1908) Recent volcanic eruptions in Bering Sea. Min Sci Press 96:353Google Scholar
  19. Engebretson DC, Cox A, Gordon RG (1984) Relative motions between oceanic plates of the Pacific Basin. J Geophys Res 89(B12):10291–10310.  https://doi.org/10.1029/JB089iB12p10291 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fee D, Lyons JJ, Haney M, Wech A, Waythomas CF, Diefenbach AK, Lopez T, VanEaton A, Schneider DF (2019) Seismoacoustic evidence for vent drying during shallow submarine eruptions at Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Bull Volcanol, doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-019-1326-5, 82, 1, 14
  21. Fournelle JH, Marsh BD, Myers J D (1994) Age, character, and significance of Aleutian arc volcanism. In Plafker, G Berg HC (Eds), The Geology of Alaska. Geol Soc Amer The Geology of North America Series G-1:723–758Google Scholar
  22. Global Volcanism Program (1992) Report on Bogoslof (United States). Bull Global Volcanism Network 17, no. 7Google Scholar
  23. Go SY, Kim GB, Jeong JO, Sohn YK (2017) Diatreme evolution during the phreatomagmatic eruption of the Songaksan tuff ring, Jeju Island, Korea. Bull Volcanol 79(3):23–26.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-017-1103-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Graettinger AH, Valentine GA (2017) Evidence for the relative depths and energies of phreatomagmatic explosions recorded in tephra rings. Bull Volcanol 79(12):88–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-017-1177-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Graettinger AH, Valentine GA, Sonder I, Ross P-S, White JDL, Taddeucci J (2014) Maar-diatreme geometry and deposits: subsurface blast experiments with variable explosion depth. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 15(3):740–764.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2013GC005198 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Graettinger AH, Valentine GA, Sonder I (2015) Circum-crater variability of deposits from discrete, laterally and vertically migrating volcanic explosions: experimental evidence and field implications. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 308:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graettinger AH, Valentine GA, Sonder I (2016) Recycling in debris-filled volcanic vents. Geology 44(10):811–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grewingk C (1850) Grewingk’s geology of Alaska and the Northwest Coast of America, [Falk, W., ed., Jaensch, F., trans., 2003]. Univ Alaska Press, Rasmuson Library Historical Translation Series 11Google Scholar
  29. Harbin ML (1994) Observations of the 1992 lava dome, Bogoslof Island, eastern Aleutian arc, Alaska. Eos 75(44):737Google Scholar
  30. Harriman EH, Merriam CH (1901) Alaska—History, geography, resources: Washington, D.C., Washington Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  31. Healy MA (1889) Report of the cruise of the Revenue Marine steamer Corwin in the Arctic Ocean, in the year 1884. US Gov Printing Office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  32. Hildreth W, Fierstein J, Calvert AT (2007) Blue Mountain and the Gas Rocks; rear-arc dome clusters on the Alaska Peninsula. In: Haeussler PJ, Galloway JP (eds) Studies by the US Geological Survey in Alaska US Geol Surv Prof Paper 1739-AGoogle Scholar
  33. Houghton BF, Smith RT (1993) Recycling of magmatic clasts during explosive eruptions: estimating the true juvenile content of phreatomagmatic volcanic deposits. Bull Volcanol 55(6):414–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hunnicutt EW (1943) Bogoslof the moving island. Alaska Life 6:55–58Google Scholar
  35. Iverson RM (1990) Lava domes modeled as brittle shells that enclose pressurized magma, with application to Mount St. Helens. In: Fink JH (ed) Lava flows and domes. Springer, Berlin, pp 47–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jaggar TA Jr (1908) The evolution of Bogoslof volcano. Bull Am Geogr Soc 40:385–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jaggar TA Jr (1927) Aleutian volcanology. The Volcano Letter, no. 147:1Google Scholar
  38. Jaggar TA Jr (1930) Recent activity at Bogoslof volcano. Volcano Lett 275:1–3Google Scholar
  39. Jordan DS, Clark GA (1906) The Bogoslofs. Pop Sci Mon 69:481–489Google Scholar
  40. Kokelaar BP (1983) The mechanism of Surtseyan volcanism. J Geol Soc 140(6):939–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kokelaar P (1986) Magma-water interactions in subaqueous and emergent basaltic volcanism. Bull Volcanol 48(5):275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Loewen MW, Izbekov P, Moshrefzadeh J, Coombs ML, Larsen JF, Graham N, Harbin M, Waythomas CF, Wallace KL (2019) Petrology of the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Bull Volcanol this issueGoogle Scholar
  43. Lorenz V, Suhr P, Suhr S (2016) Phreatomagmatic maar-diatreme volcanoes and their incremental growth: a model. Geol Soc, London, Spec Pub SP446:4–31Google Scholar
  44. Lyons JJ, Haney MM, Fee D, Wech AG, Waythomas CF (2019a) Infrasound from giant bubbles during explosive submarine eruptions of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Nat Geosci 12:952–958.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-019-0461-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lyons JJ, Iezzi AM, Fee D, Schwaiger HF, Wech AG, Haney MM (2019b) Infrasound generated by the 2016–2017 shallow submarine eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Bull Volcanol this issueGoogle Scholar
  46. Marsh BD, Leitz RE (1979) Geology of Amak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. J Geol 87:715–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McBirney AR (1963) Factors governing the nature of submarine volcanism. Bull Volcanol 26(1):455–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McGimsey RG, Neal CA, Doukas MP (1995) Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory 1992. US Geol Surv Open File Rep:95–83Google Scholar
  49. Merriam CH (1902) Bogoslof volcanoes: Smithsonian Inst Ann Report 1901:367–375Google Scholar
  50. Merrill GP (1885) On hornblende andesites from the new volcano on Bogoslof Island in Bering Sea. Proc US Natl Mus 8:31–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Moore JG (1967) Base surge in recent volcanic eruptions. Bull Volcanol 30:337–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Morris GE (1936) Bogoslof Island. US Coast Geodetic Surv Field Eng Bull 10:110–121Google Scholar
  53. Morrissey M, Mastin L (2000) Vulcanian eruptions. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 463–476Google Scholar
  54. Morrissey M, Gisler G, Weaver R, Gittings M (2010) Numerical model of crater lake eruptions. Bull Volcanol 72(10):1169–1178.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-010-0392-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Munger FM (1909) A jack in the box—an account of the strange performances of the most wonderful island in the world. Natl Geogr Mag 20:194–199Google Scholar
  56. Nakamura K (1977) Volcanoes as possible indicators of tectonic stress orientation—principle and proposal. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 2:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Powers S (1916) Recent changes in Bogoslof volcano. Geogr Rev 2:218–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Prosser WT (1911) Nature turned sorceress. The Technical World Magazine XV:64–68Google Scholar
  59. Roberts H (1794) Chart of the N.W. coast of America and the N.E. coast of Asia, explored in the years 1778 and 1779. Published by Wm. Faden, Geographer to the King, London [Also available at https://open.library.ubc.ca/collections/specialp/items/1.0065890]
  60. Rosseel J-B, White JDL, Houghton BF (2006) Complex bombs of phreatomagmatic eruptions: the role of agglomeration and welding in vents of the 1886 Rotomahana (Tarawera) eruption, New Zealand. J Geophys Res 111(B12205).  https://doi.org/10.1029/2005JB004073 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Schipper CI, White JD (2016) Magma-slurry interaction in Surtseyan eruptions. Geology 44(3):195–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schneider D, Van Eaton AR, Wallace KL (2019) Satellite observations of the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano: aviation and ash fallout hazard implications from a water-rich eruption. Bull Volcanol this issueGoogle Scholar
  63. Scholl DW, Buffington EC, Hopkins DM (1968) Geologic history of the continental margin of North America in the Bering Sea. Mar Geol 6:297–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Scholl DW, Buffington EC, Hopkins DM, Alpha TR (1970) The structure and origin of the large submarine canyons of the Bering Sea. Mar Geol 8:187–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shavanov I (1772) Karta merkatorskaia, publisher unknown. Available from the Rare Maps Collection, Alaska and Polar Regions collection, University of Alaska-Fairbanks Library (http://vilda.alaska.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/cdmg11/id/10450/rec/1)
  66. Sohn YK, Chough SK (1989) Depositional processes of the Suwolbong tuff ring, Cheju Island (Korea). Sedimentology 36(5):837–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Tepp G, Power JA, Dziak R, Searcy C, Lyons J, Haney M, Haxel JH, Matsumoto H (2019) Seismic and hydroacoustic observations of the 2016–17 Bogoslof eruption. Bull Volcanol this issueGoogle Scholar
  68. Thorarinsson S (1967) The Surtsey eruption and related scientific work. Polar Rec 13(86):571–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Thorarinsson S, Einarsson T, Sigvaldason G, Elisson G (1964) The submarine eruption off the Vestmann Islands 1963–64. Bull Volcanol 27(1):435–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tibaldi A, Bonali FL (2017) Intra-arc and back-arc volcano-tectonics: magma pathways at Holocene Alaska-Aleutian volcanoes. Earth Sci Rev 167:1–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Valentine GA, Graettinger AH, Sonder I (2014) Explosion depths for phreatomagmatic eruptions. Geophys Res Lett 41(9):3045–3051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Valentine GA, White JDL, Ross P-S, Graettinger AH, Sonder I (2017) Updates to concepts on phreatomagmatic maar-diatremes and their pyroclastic deposits. Front Earth Sci 5.  https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2017.00068
  73. Van Eaton AR, Smith C, Schneider D, Smith CM, Haney MM, Lyons JJ, Said R, Fee D, Holzworth RH, Mastin LG (2019) Did ice-charging generate volcanic lightning during the 2016–2017 eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska? Bull. Volcanol this issueGoogle Scholar
  74. Veniaminov I (1840) Notes on the islands of the Unalaska district [translated from Russian by Lydia T. Black and R.H. Geoghegan in 1984]: Pierce, R. A., (ed.), Kingston, Ontario, Limestone Press, 511 pGoogle Scholar
  75. Voight B (2000) Structural stability of andesite volcanoes and lava domes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A Math Phys Eng Sci 358:1663–1703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. von Kotzebue O (1821) Voyage of discovery in the South Sea and Beering’s Straits, volume 3: London, Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 456 p.Google Scholar
  77. von Langsdorff GH (1817) Voyages and travels in various parts of the world, during the years 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, and 1807: Carlisle, Pa., George Phillips.Google Scholar
  78. Waters AC, Fisher RV (1971) Base surges and their deposits: Capelinhos and Taal volcanoes. J Geophys Res 76(23):5596–5614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Waythomas CF, Cameron CE (2018) Historical eruptions and hazards at Bogoslof volcano. Alaska US Geol Surv Sci Inv Rep:2018–5085Google Scholar
  80. Waythomas CF, Mastin LG (2019) Mechanisms for ballistic block ejection during the 2016–2017 shallow submarine eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska. Bull Volcanol this issueGoogle Scholar
  81. Waythomas CF, Angeli K, Wessels R (2019) 2016–2017 evolution of the submarine-subaerial edifice of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska, based on analysis of satellite imagery. Bull Volcanol this issueGoogle Scholar
  82. White JD, Ross PS (2011) Maar-diatreme volcanoes: a review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 201(1 4):1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wohletz KH, Sheridan MF (1983) Hydrovolcanic explosions; II, evolution of basaltic tuff rings and tuff cones. Amer J Sci 283(5):385–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wynne JJ, Shahan TJ, Pallen CB, Pace EA, Herbermann CG (1913) The Catholic encyclopedia: an international work of reference on the constitution, doctrine, discipline, and history of the Catholic church. Encyclopedia PressGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Volcano ObservatoryAnchorageUSA
  2. 2.Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical SurveysFairbanksUSA
  3. 3.Department of Geosciences and Geophysical InstituteUniversity of Alaska-FairbanksFairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations