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Bulletin of Volcanology

, 82:4 | Cite as

Seismic and hydroacoustic observations of the 2016–17 Bogoslof eruption

  • Gabrielle TeppEmail author
  • Robert P. Dziak
  • Matthew M. Haney
  • John J. Lyons
  • Cheryl Searcy
  • Haru Matsumoto
  • Joseph Haxel
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. The 2016-17 shallow submarine eruption of Bogoslof volcano, Alaska

Abstract

In mid-December 2016, Bogoslof volcano, Alaska, began an 8.5-month-long eruption that produced at least 70 explosions and three lava domes. Bogoslof is an emergent submarine volcano with only the very top forming a small island, so the eruptive activity mostly occurred from a vent submerged beneath a bay or lagoon. The Bogoslof eruption was recorded on regional seismic and infrasound arrays as well as by a hydrophone that was deployed locally during the second half of the eruption. Since few emergent volcanic eruptions have seismo-acoustic recordings, these observations, taken in context with satellite and other observations, provide an opportunity to greatly improve our understanding of the seismo-acoustic signals produced by these eruptions. The instruments detected a range of activity including earthquakes, tremor, and mass flow events. Earthquakes occurred before, during, after, and unassociated with explosions and also often occurred in swarms. The 47 seismically-detected swarms and 27 additional hydroacoustically detected swarms can be further broken into four types: precursory, post-eruptive, general, and tremor-dominated. Most seismic swarms were less than 10 h long, had fewer than 50 earthquakes, and had average earthquake rates below 20/h. For the explosions, we calculate a tremor magnitude, frequency index, and average frequency. The tremor magnitudes determined from the hydrophone data show a roughly linear relation to explosion plume height, though this relation was not clear in the more limited seismic data. Lastly, we categorize the activity into five eruption phases based on seismo-acoustic character—precursory, opening, explosive I, pause, and explosive II.

Keywords

Volcano seismology Hydroacoustics Explosion seismicity Earthquake swarms Volcanic tremor 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the FWS Tiglax crew for help in deploying the hydrophone and Geoff Lebon from NOAA-PMEL and the crew of the NOAA ship R/V Oscar Dyson for the recovery. AVO staff and others provided access to their data and analyses and helpful discussions throughout the eruption, for which we are grateful. Dane Ketner provided information about the seismic data return. Andy Lau was very helpful with the hydrophone data. Brian Shiro, Robin Matoza, and Alex Iezzi provided helpful comments on the manuscript. Seismic data (network code AV) is available through the IRIS Data Management Center. Hydrophone data are available from the NOAA Pacific Marine Environment Lab upon request to the authors. This paper is NOAA-PMEL contribution number 4954. Some figures were made with the GISMO Toolbox for MATLAB (Thompson and Reyes 2018). GT was supported by the U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Fellowship Program. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Supplementary material

445_2019_1344_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (718 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 718 kb)
445_2019_1344_MOESM2_ESM.xlsx (24 kb)
ESM 2 (XLSX 23 kb)

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.U. S. Geological SurveyAlaska Volcano ObservatoryAnchorageUSA
  2. 2.NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental LaboratoryNewportUSA
  3. 3.CIMRS, Oregon State University/NOAANewportUSA

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