Bulletin of Volcanology

, 80:5 | Cite as

Dukono, the predominant source of volcanic degassing in Indonesia, sustained by a depleted Indian-MORB

  • Philipson Bani
  • Giancarlo Tamburello
  • Estelle F. Rose-Koga
  • Marco Liuzzo
  • Alessandro Aiuppa
  • Nicolas Cluzel
  • Iwan Amat
  • Devy Kamil Syahbana
  • Hendra Gunawan
  • Marcello Bitetto
Review Article


Located on Halmahera island, Dukono is among the least known volcanoes in Indonesia. A compilation of the rare available reports indicates that this remote and hardly accessible volcano has been regularly in eruption since 1933, and has undergone nearly continuous eruptive manifestation over the last decade. The first study of its gas emissions, presented in this work, highlights a huge magmatic volatile contribution into the atmosphere, with an estimated annual output of about 290 kt of SO2, 5000 kt of H2O, 88 kt of CO2, 5 kt of H2S and 7 kt of H2. Assuming these figures are representative of the long-term continuous eruptive activity, then Dukono is the current most prominent volcanic gas discharge point in Indonesia and ranks among the top-ten volcanic SO2 sources on earth. Combining our findings with other recent volcanic SO2 flux results, obtained during periodic campaigns at a number of volcanoes with DOAS and UV-Cameras, the SO2 emission budget for Indonesia is estimated at 540 kt year−1, representing 2–3% of the global volcanic SO2 contribution into the atmosphere. This figure should be considered as minimum as gas emissions from numerous other active volcanoes in Indonesia are yet to be evaluated. This voluminous degassing output from Dukono is sustained by a depleted Indian-MORB (I-MORB) mantle source. This latter is currently undergoing lateral pressure from the steepening of the subducted slab, the downward force from the Philippine Sea plate and the westward motion of a continental fragments along the Sorong fault, leading to high fluid fluxes to the surface. Over the course of Dukono eruptive activity, the magma reservoir has changed from a less differentiated source that fed the past voluminous lava flows to a more evolved melt that sustained the current ongoing explosive activity.


Dukono volcano Degassing budget Depleted mantle source Magma source evolution 



This work was achieved under the collaboration between Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazards (CVGHM) and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) under the JEAI-Commission program. We gratefully acknowledge the technical assistance from Dukono Observatory. We thank B. McCormick and an anonymous reviewer for useful comments and suggestions. This is a Laboratory of Excellence ClerVolc contribution number 273.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipson Bani
    • 1
  • Giancarlo Tamburello
    • 2
  • Estelle F. Rose-Koga
    • 1
  • Marco Liuzzo
    • 3
  • Alessandro Aiuppa
    • 4
  • Nicolas Cluzel
    • 1
  • Iwan Amat
    • 5
  • Devy Kamil Syahbana
    • 5
  • Hendra Gunawan
    • 5
  • Marcello Bitetto
    • 4
  1. 1.Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Laboratoire Magmas et VolcansClermont-FerrandFrance
  2. 2.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di BolognaBolognaItaly
  3. 3.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sez, PalermoPalermoItaly
  4. 4.Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e del Mare (DiSTeM)Università di Palermo via archirafiPalermoItaly
  5. 5.Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM)BandungIndonesia

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