Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, 79:72 | Cite as

The 1914 Taisho eruption of Sakurajima volcano: stratigraphy and dynamics of the largest explosive event in Japan during the twentieth century

  • A. Todde
  • R. CioniEmail author
  • M. Pistolesi
  • N. Geshi
  • C. Bonadonna
Research Article

Abstract

The 1914 Taisho eruption of Sakurijima volcano was Japan’s highest intensity and magnitude eruption of the twentieth century. After a 35-year period of quiescence, the volcano suddenly rewoke a few days before the eruption, when earthquakes began to be felt on Sakurajima Island. The eruption began on January 12, 1914, from two fissures located on opposite sides of the volcano, and was characterized by a complex time evolution and changes in eruptive styles. The eruption began with a subPlinian explosive phase in which two convective columns rose from the two fissures. Both plumes were sustained for at least 2 days. This resulted in deposition of a widely dispersed tephra sequence. After this phase, the eruption evolved to a final, waning phase, shifting toward effusive activity that lasted until April 1914. During the first weeks, effusive activity was also accompanied by ash emission. The complex sequence of events, characterized by contemporaneous explosive and effusive activity, is typical of several recently observed mid-intensity eruptions, such as during the 2011 eruption of Cordón Caulle, Chile. The stratigraphic sequence of the eruptive deposits from the Taisho eruption comprises alternating coarse-to-fine lapilli beds with ash beds dispersed toward the ESE and SE. These deposits can be subdivided into three lapilli-bearing units (Units T1, T2 and T3, which correspond to the subPlinian phase) and one ash-bearing unit (Unit T4, which corresponds to the final ash venting, accompanying the first day/weeks of lava flow activity). Grain size analyses from each unit reveal a marked polymodal distribution generally described by the sum of two or three Gaussian subpopulations. Both the modes and the relative amounts of the coarse subpopulations vary with distance from vent, with those of the fine subpopulation remaining nearly constant. Within the vertical sequence, component analysis shows a progressive increase in lithic fragments, suggesting that conduit enlargement continued until the final stages of the eruption. The estimated volume of the tephra deposit of the subPlinian phase of the eruption is 0.33 ± 0.11 km3 (dense rock equivalent (DRE) volume = 0.09 ± 0.03 km3). The height of the eruption column was also assessed by using four different isopleth maps compiled based on different strategies for the characterization of the largest clasts. The maximum height attained by the eruption column is estimated at 15.0 ± 1.2 km above the vent, resulting in a maximum mass discharge rate of 3.6 ± 1.2 × 107 kg s−1 (calculated taking into account the strong effect of wind advection). Finally, different classification schemes were applied to classify the eruption, which generally straddles the fields between Plinian and subPlinian.

Keywords

Taisho eruption Sakurajima volcano Stratigraphy Plinian subPlinian 

Notes

Acknowledgments

A. Todde was partially supported by the University of Florence funds for internationalization. R. Cioni and M. Pistolesi were supported by the Italian Civil Protection in the framework of the DEVNET project granted to M. Ripepe. C. Bonadonna was supported by the FN grant no. 200021_156255. The authors are grateful to M. Ripepe, S. Biass, T. Miwa, T. Nishizawa, and P. Gabellini for discussion and assistance in the field, to M. Bagheri for discussion on the determination of the largest clasts, and to L. Dominguez for her help in laser grain size analyses. We are deeply indebted with Associate Editor Judy Fierstein and two anonymous reviewers for their accurate and propositive comments and suggestions.

Supplementary material

445_2017_1154_MOESM1_ESM.tif (7.2 mb)
ESM 1 (TIFF 7336 kb)
445_2017_1154_Fig13_ESM.gif (277 kb)

High resolution (GIF 277 kb)

445_2017_1154_MOESM2_ESM.tif (18.6 mb)
ESM 2 (TIFF 19019 kb)
445_2017_1154_Fig14_ESM.gif (594 kb)

High resolution (GIF 593 kb)

445_2017_1154_MOESM3_ESM.tif (18.7 mb)
ESM 3 (TIFF 19177 kb)
445_2017_1154_Fig15_ESM.gif (622 kb)

High resolution (GIF 622 kb)

445_2017_1154_MOESM4_ESM.tif (3.8 mb)
ESM 4 (TIFF 3862 kb)
445_2017_1154_Fig16_ESM.gif (19 kb)

High resolution (GIF 19 kb)

445_2017_1154_MOESM5_ESM.tif (8.4 mb)
ESM 5 (TIFF 8627 kb)
445_2017_1154_Fig17_ESM.gif (312 kb)

High resolution (GIF 312 kb)

References

  1. Abe K (1979) Magnitude of major volcanic earthquakes of Japan 1901–1925. J Fac Sci Hokkaido Univ 6:201–212Google Scholar
  2. Alfano F, Bonadonna C, Volentik ACM, Connor CB, Watt SFL, Pyle DM, Connor L (2011) Tephra stratigraphy and eruptive volume of the May, 2008, Chaitén eruption, Chile. Bull Volcanol 73:613–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagheri G,  Bonadonna C (2016) Aerodynamics of volcanic particles: characterization of size, shape, and settling velocity. In: Mackie S et al. (eds) Volcanic ash, 1st edn. Elsevier, ISBN: 9780081004050, pp 300Google Scholar
  4. Bagheri GH, Bonadonna C, Manzella I, Vonlanthen P (2014) On the characterization of size and shape of irregular particles. Powder Technol 270:141–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biass S., Bagheri G., Bonadonna C. (2015) A Matlab implementation of the Carey and Sparks (1986) model, https://vhub.org/resources/3922
  6. Biass S, Todde A, Cioni R, Pistolesi M, Geshi N, Bonadonna C (2017) Potential impacts of tephra fallout from a large-scale explosive eruption at Sakurajima volcano, Japan. Bull Volcanol.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-017-1153-5
  7. Blong R,  Enright NJ (2011) Preservation of thin tephras. Unpublished manuscript, http://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/5785
  8. Bonadonna C, Costa A (2012) Estimating the volume of tephra deposits: a new simple strategy, Geology.  https://doi.org/10.1130/G32769.1
  9. Bonadonna C, Costa A (2013) Plume height, volume and classification of volcanic eruptions based on the Weibull function. Bull Volcanol 75:742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonadonna C, Houghton BF (2005) Total grain-size distribution and volume of tephra-fall deposits. Bull Volcanol 67:441–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bonadonna C, Mayberry GC, Calder ES, Sparks RSJ, Choux C, Jackson P, Lejeune AM, Loughlin SC, Norton GE, Rose WI, Ryan G, Young SR (2002) Tephra fallout in the eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Geological Society, London, Memoirs 21:483–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonadonna C, Cioni R, Pistolesi M, Connor C, Scollo S, Pioli L, Rosi M (2013) Determination of the largest clast sizes of tephra deposits for the characterization of explosive eruptions: a study of the IAVCEI commission on tephra hazard modelling. Bull Volcanol 75:680.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-012-0680-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bonadonna C, Biass S, Costa A (2015a) Physical characterization of explosive volcanic eruptions based on tephra deposits: propagation of uncertainties and sensitivity analysis. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 296:80–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bonadonna C, Cioni R, Pistolesi M, Elissondo M, Baumann V (2015b) Sedimentation of long-lasting wind-affected volcanic plumes: the example of the 2011 rhyolitic Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile. Bull Volcanol 77:13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bonadonna C, Pistolesi M, Cioni R, Degruyter W, Elissondo M,  Baumann V (2015c) Dynamics of wind-affected volcanic plumes: the example of the 2011 Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile. J Geophys Res: Solid Earth.  https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JB011478
  16. Bonadonna C, Cioni R, Costa A, Druitt T, Phillips JC, Pioli L, Andronico D, Harris A, Scollo S, Bachmann O, Bagheri G, Biass S, Brogi F, Cashman K, Dominguez L, Dürig T, Galland O, Giordano G, Gudmundsson M, Hort M, Höskuldsson A, Houghton B, Komorowski JC, Küppers U, Lacanna G, Le Pennec JL, Macedonio G, Manga M, Manzella I, de M, Vitturi M, Neri A, Pistolesi M, Polacci M, Ripepe M, Rossi E, Scheu B, Sulpizio R, Tripoli B, Valade S, Valentine G, Vidal C, Wallenstein N (2016) MeMoVolc report on classification and dynamics of volcanic explosive eruptions. Forum Contribution, Bulletin of Volcanology 78:84.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-016-1071-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Branca S, De Beni E, Proietti C (2013) The large and destructive 1669 AD eruption at Etna volcano: reconstruction of the lava flow field evolution and effusion rate trend. Bull Volcanol 75:694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brazier S, Davis AN, Sigurdsson H, Sparks RSJ (1982) Fall-out and deposition of volcanic ash during the 1979 explosive eruption of the soufriere of St. Vincent. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 14:335–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brazier S, Sparks RSJ, Carey SN, Sigurdsson H, Westgate JA (1983) Bimodal grain size distribution and secondary thickening in air-fall ash layers. Nature 301:115–119.  https://doi.org/10.1038/301115a0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carey SN, Sparks RSJ (1986) Quantitative models of the fallout and dispersal of tephra from volcanic eruption columns. Bull Volcanol 48:109–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carey S, Bursik M (2015) Volcanic Plumes. In: Sigurdsson H et al. (eds) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes - Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 571–585Google Scholar
  22. Cashman KV, Mangan MT (2014) A century of studying effusive eruptions in Hawai‘i. In Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes, M. P. Poland, T. J. Takahashi and C. M. Landowski. U.S. Geol Surv Prof Pap 1801:357–394Google Scholar
  23. Cioni R, Bertagnini A, Santacroce R, Andronico D (2008) Explosive activity and eruption scenarios at Somma-Vesuvius (Italy): towards a new classification scheme. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 178(3):331–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cioni R., Pistolesi M., and Rosi M. (2015) Plinian and subplinian eruptions. In: Encyclopedia of volcanoes, Sigurdsson H. ed., 519–535Google Scholar
  25. Degruyter W, Bonadonna C (2012) Improving on mass flow rate estimates of volcanic eruptions. Geophys Res Lett.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL052566
  26. Durant AJ, Rose WI (2009) Sedimentological constraints on hydrometeor-enhanced particle deposition: 1992 Eruptions of Crater Peak, Alaska. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Volume 186:40–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Durant AJ, Villarosa G, Rose WI, Delmelle P, Prata AJ, Viramonte JG (2012) Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Volumes 45–46:50–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Engwell SL, Sparks RSJ, Aspinall WP (2013) Quantifying uncertainties in the measurement of tephra fall thickness. J Appl Volcanol 2(5)Google Scholar
  29. Fierstein J, Nathenson M (1992) Another look at the calculation of fallout tephra volumes. Bull Volcanol 54:156–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Geshi N, Miyabuchi Y (2016) Conduit enlargement during the precursory Plinian eruption of Aira Caldera, Japan. Bull Volcanol 78:63.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00445-016-1057-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gonnermann H M, Manga M (2013) Dynamics of magma ascent in the volcanic conduit. In: Fagents SA, Gregg TKP, Lopes RMC (eds) Modeling volcanic processes: the physics and mathematics of volcanism, pp 55–84.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139021562.004
  32. Gudmundsson A, Oskarsson N, Gronvold K, Saemundsson K, Sigurdsson O, Stefansson R, Gislason SR, Einarsson P, Brandsdottir B, Larsen G, Johannesson H, Thordarsson T (1992) The 1991 eruption of Hekla, Iceland. Bull Volcanol:238–246Google Scholar
  33. Hickey J, Gottsmann J, Nakamichi H, Iguchi M (2016) Thermomechanical controls on magma supply and volcanic deformation: application to Aira caldera, Japan. Sci Rep 6:32691.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep32691 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hildreth W, Drake RE (1992) Volcán Quizapu, Chilean Andes. Bull Volcanol 54:93–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Houghton BF, Wilson CJN (1989) A vesicularity index for pyroclastic deposits. Bull Volcanol 51:451–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Imura R (1998) Reconstruction of the sequence of the Anei eruption of Sakurajima volcano (A.D. 1779-1782) using the historical records. Bull. Volcanol. Soc Japan 43:373–383Google Scholar
  37. Inman DL (1952) Measures for describing the size distribution of sediments. J Sediment Petrol 22:125–145Google Scholar
  38. Ishihara T, Takayama T, Tanaka Y,  Hirabayashi J (1981) Lava flows at Sakurajima volcano (I) — volume of the historical lava flows. Annuals of Disas Prev Res Inst, Kyoto Univ, 24B-1:1-10Google Scholar
  39. Kobayashi T, Miki D, Sasaki H, Iguchi M, Yamamoto T, Uto K (2013) Geological map of Sakurajima Volcano, Second edn. Geological Survey of Japan, TsukubaGoogle Scholar
  40. Koto B (1916) The great eruption of Sakura-jima in 1914. J Coll Sci Imperial Univ Tokyo 38:1–237Google Scholar
  41. Krumbein WC (1941) Measurement and geological significance of shape and roundness of sedimentary particles. J Sediment Res 11:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kudo T,  Hoshizumi H (2006) P-130 evaluation of volcanic activity during the last 10,000 years in the Tohoku District, Northeast Japan: Application of the AIST database "Catalog of Eruptive Events during the last 10,000 years in Japan". The Geological Society of Japan. http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110006199075/en/
  43. Larsen G, Eiríksson J (2008) Late quaternary terrestrial tephrochronology of Iceland—frequency of explosive eruptions, type and volume of tephra deposits. J Quaternary Sci 23:109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Machida H (2002) Volcanoes and tephras in the Japan area. Glob Environ Res 6:19–28Google Scholar
  45. Mason BG, Pyle DM, Oppenheimer C (2004) The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth. Bull Volcanol 66(8):735–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mastin LG, Guffanti M, Servranckx R, Webley P, Barsotti S, Dean K, Durant A, Ewert JW, Neri A, Rose WI, Schneider D, Siebert L, Stunder B, Swanson G, Tupper A, Volentik A,  Waythomas CF (2009) A multidisciplinary effort to assign realistic source parameters to models of volcanic ash-cloud transport and dispersion during eruptions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.01.008
  47. Miwa T, Geshi N, Shinohara H (2013) Temporal variation in volcanic ash texture during a vulcanian eruption at the Sakurajima volcano, Japan. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 260:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nagaoka S (1988) Late Quaternary tephra layers from the caldera volcanoes in and around Kagoshima bay, southern Kyushu. Japan. Geogr. Rep, Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. 23:49–122Google Scholar
  49. Nakamura K (2006) Textures of plagioclase microlite and vesicles within volcanic products of the 1914-1915 eruption of Sakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan. J Mineral Petrol Sci 101:178–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Omori F (1916) The Sakura-Jima eruption and earthquakes. Bulletin of The Imperial Earthquake Investigation Committee, pp 525Google Scholar
  51. Pistolesi M, Cioni R, Bonadonna C, Elissondo M, Baumann V, Bertagnini A, Chiari L, Gonzales R, Rosi M, Francalanci L (2015) Complex dynamics of small-moderate volcanic events: the example of the 2011 rhyolitic Cordón Caulle eruption, Chile. Bull Volcanol 77:1–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pyle DM (1989) The thickness, volume and grain size of tephra fall deposits. Bull Volcanol 51(1):1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pyle DM (2015) Sizes of volcanic eruptions. Encyclopedia of Volcanoes:257–264Google Scholar
  54. Riker JM, Cashman KV, Kauahikaua JP, Montierth CM (2009) The length of channelized lava flows: insight from the 1859 eruption of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 183(3):139–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rittmann A (1962) Volcanoes and their activity. Interscience (Wiley), New York, pp 305Google Scholar
  56. Simkin T, Siebert L (2000) Earth's volcanoes and eruptions: an overview. In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton BF, McNutt SR, Rymer H, Stix J (eds) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 249–269Google Scholar
  57. Sparks RSJ, Brazier S, Huang TC, Muerdter D (1983) Sedimentology of the Minoan deep-sea tephra layer in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean. Marine Geology Volume 54:131–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Staudacher T, Ferrazzini V, Peltier A, Kowalski P, Boissier P, Catherine P, Lauret F, Massin F (2009) The April 2007 eruption and the Dolomieu crater collapse, two major events at Piton de la Fournaise. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 184(1–2):126–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Takahashi M, Otsuka T, Sako H, Kawamata H, Yasui M, Kanamaru T, Otsuki M, Kobayash T, Ishihara K, Miki D (2013) Temporal variation for magmatic chemistry of the Sakurajima volcano and Aira Caldera region, Southern Kyushu, Southwest Japan since 61 ka and its implications for the evolution of magma chamber system. Bull Volcanol Soc Japan 58(1):19–42Google Scholar
  60. Thorarinsson S (1954) The eruption of Hekla 1947-1948. Soc Sci. Islandica, Reykjavik, pp 1-23. Google Scholar
  61. Tuffen H, James MR, Castro JM, Schipper C (2013) Exceptional mobility of an advancing rhyolitic obsidian flow at Cordón Caulle volcano in Chile. Nat Commun 4:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Varekamp JC, Luhr JF, Prestegaard KL (1984) The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano (Chiapas, Mexico): character of the eruptions, ash-fall deposits, and gas phase. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23(1–2):39–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Walker GPL (1973a) Explosive volcanic eruptions—a new classification scheme. Geol. Rundsch 62:431–446 4,6,9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Walker GPL (1973b) Lengths of lava flows. Philos Trans: Math Phys Eng Sci 274:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Walker GPL (1981) Plinian eruptions and their products. Bull Volcanol 44(3):223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wilson L, Sparks RSJ, Walker GPL (1980) Explosive volcanic eruptions—IV. The control of magma properties and conduit geometry on eruption column behaviour. Geophys J Int 63(1):117–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wohletz KH, Sheridan MF, Brown WK (1989) Particle-size distributions and the sequential fragmentation/transport theory applied to volcanic ash. J Geophys Res Solid Earth Planets 94(B11):15703–15721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Woods AW (1995) The dynamics of explosive volcanic eruptions. Rev Geophys 33(4):495–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yasui M, Takahashi M, Ishihara K, Miki D (2006) Records on the 1914-1915 eruption of Sakurajima volcano, Japan. Proc. Inst Natural Sci Nihon Univ 41:75–107Google Scholar
  70. Yasui M, Takahashi M, Ishihara K, Miki D (2007) Eruptive style and its temporal variation through the 1914-1915 eruption of Sakurajima volcano southern Kyushu Japan. Bull.Volcanol. Soc. Japan 52:161–186Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di FirenzeFlorenceItaly
  2. 2.Volcanic Risk Solutions, Institute of Agriculture and EnvironmentMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  3. 3.Geological Survey of JapanNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyTsukubaJapan
  4. 4.Département des Sciences de la TerreUniversité de GenèveGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations