Advertisement

Bulletin of Volcanology

, 79:59 | Cite as

Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

  • Michael P. Poland
  • Michael Lisowski
  • Daniel Dzurisin
  • Rebecca Kramer
  • Megan McLay
  • Ben Pauk
Review Article

Abstract

Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic-tectonic interactions, and loss of volatiles plus densification of magma. The Cascade Range thus offers an outstanding opportunity for investigating a wide range of volcanic processes. Indeed, there may be areas of geodetic change that have yet to be discovered, and there is good potential for addressing a number of important questions about how arc volcanoes work before, during, and after eruptions by continuing geodetic research in the Cascade Range.

Keywords

Volcano geodesy Cascade arc Cascade Range Deformation Gravity change 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the US Geological Survey’s Volcano Hazards Program and Volcano Science Center. We are grateful to the numerous staff members, interns, and volunteers at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory, from 1980 to the present, who participated in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of geodetic data over the years. In particular, we wish to acknowledge Jack Kleinman, Ken Yamashita, and Gene Iwatsubo for their commitment to establishing, maintaining, and expanding geodetic measurements throughout the Cascades. Joe Bard’s expertise was critical for creating the maps in this report. Several figures were created using the Generic Mapping Tools software (Wessel et al. 2013). This manuscript was greatly improved by reviews from Don Swanson, Bill Chadwick, and Matt Pritchard.

References

  1. Achauer U, Evans JR, Stauber DA (1988) High-resolution seismic tomography of compressional wave velocity structure at Newberry volcano, Oregon Cascade Range. J Geophys Res 93(B9):10,135–10,147. doi: 10.1029/JB093iB09p10135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson K, Lisowski M, Segall P (2010) Cyclic ground tilt associated with the 2004-2008 eruption of Mount St. Helens. J Geophys Res 115(B11201). doi: 10.1029/2009JB007102
  3. Anderson K, Segall P (2011) Physics-based models of ground deformation and extrusion rate at effusively erupting volcanoes. J Geophys Res 116(B07204). doi: 10.1029/2010JB007939
  4. Bacon CR (1983) Eruptive history of Mount Mazama and Crater Lake Caldera, Cascade Range, USA. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 18(1–4):57–115. doi: 10.1016/0377-0273(83)90004-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bacon CR, Lanphere MA (2006) Eruptive history and geochronology of Mount Mazama and the Crater Lake region, Oregon. Geol Soc Am Bull 118(11/12):1331–1359. doi: 10.1130/B25906.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Battaglia M, Lisowski M, Dzurisin D, Poland MP, Schilling SP, Diefenbach AK, Wynn J (2015) Mass intrusion at Mount St. Helens (WA) from temporal gravity variations. Am. Geophys. Un. Fall Meet., Dec. 14–18, San Fran., Calif., Abstract G41A-1012Google Scholar
  7. Beachly MW, Hooft EEE, Toomey DR, Waite GP (2012) Upper crustal structure of Newberry Volcano from P-wave tomography and finite difference waveform modeling. J Geophys Res 117(B10311). doi: 10.1029/2012JB009458
  8. Begét JE (1982) Recent volcanic activity at Glacier Peak. Science 215:1389–1390. doi: 10.1126/science.215.4538.1389 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carbone D, Poland MP, Diament M, Greco F (2017) The added value of time-variable microgravimetry to the understanding of how volcanoes work. Earth-Sci Rev 168:146–179. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.04.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chadwick WW, Iwatsubo EY, Swanson DA, Ewert JW (1985) Measurements of slope distances and vertical angles at Mount Baker and Mount Rainier, Washington, Mount Hood and Crater Lake, Oregon, and Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California, 1980–1984. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 85-205, pp 96Google Scholar
  11. Chadwick WW, Archuleta RJ, Swanson DA (1988) The mechanics of ground deformation precursory to dome-building extrusions at Mount St. Helens 1981–1982. J Geophys Res 93(B5):4351–4366. doi: 10.1002/9781118782064.ch16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chaussard E, Amelung F (2012) Precursory inflation of shallow magma reservoirs at west Sunda volcanoes detected by InSAR. Geophys Res Lett 39(L21311). doi: 10.1029/2012GL053817
  13. Chiarabba C, Amato A, Evans JR (1995) Variations on the NeHT high-resolution tomography method: a test of technique and results for Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California. J Geophys Res 100(B3):4035–4052. doi: 10.1029/94JB02771 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Christiansen RL, Peterson DW (1981) Chronology of the 1980 eruptive activity. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:17–30Google Scholar
  15. Clynne MA, Christiansen RL, Trimble DA, McGeehin JP (2008) Radiocarbon dates from volcanic deposits of the Chaos Crags and Cinder Cone eruptive sequences and other deposits, Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 02–290Google Scholar
  16. Crandell DR (1989) Gigantic debris avalanche of Pleistocene age from ancestral Mount Shasta volcano, California, and debris-avalanche hazard zonation. US Geol Surv Bull 1861:32Google Scholar
  17. Crandell DR, Miller CD, Glicken HX, Christiansen RL, Newhall CG (1984) Catastrophic debris avalanche from ancestral Mount Shasta volcano, California. Geology 12:143–146. doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1984)12<143:CDAFAM>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Crider JG, Frank D, Malone SD, Poland MP, Werner C, Caplan-Auerbach J (2011) Magma at depth: a retrospective analysis of the 1975 unrest at Mount Baker, Washington, USA. Bull Volcanol 73(2):175–189. doi: 10.1007/s00445-010-0441-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crider JG, Johnsen KH, Williams-Jones G (2008) Thirty-year gravity change at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington, USA: extracting the signal from under the ice. Geophys Res Lett 35(20). doi: 10.1029/2008GL034921
  20. de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen E, Rymer H, Sigmundsson F, Sturkell E (2005) Net gravity decrease at Askja volcano, Iceland: constraints on processes responsible for continuous caldera deflation, 1988–2003. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 139(3–4):227–239. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2004.08.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen E, Rymer H, Sturkell E, Pedersen R, Hooper A, Sigmundsson F, Ófeigsson B (2013) Geodetic data shed light on ongoing caldera subsidence at Askja, Iceland. Bull Volcanol 75(5):709. doi: 10.1007/s00445-013-0709-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Diefenbach AK, Crider JG, Schilling SP, Dzurisin D (2012) Rapid, low-cost photogrammetry to monitor volcanic eruptions: an example from Mount St. Helens, Washington, USA. Bull Volcanol 74(2):579–587. doi: 10.1007/s00445-011-0548-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Donnelly-Nolan JM (1988) A magmatic model of Medicine Lake Volcano, California. J Geophys Res 93(B5):4412–4420. doi: 10.1029/JB093iB05p04412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Donnelly-Nolan JM, Champion DE, Grove TL (2016) Late Holocene volcanism at Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California Cascades. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1822, pp 59. doi: 10.3133/pp1822
  25. Donnelly-Nolan JM, Champion DE, Miller CD, Grove TL, Trimble DA (1990) Post-11,000-year volcanism at Medicine Lake Volcano, Cascade Range, Northern California. J Geophys Res 95(B12):19,693–19,704. doi: 10.1029/JB095iB12p19693 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Donnelly-Nolan JM, Grove TL, Lanphere MA, Champion DE, Ramsey DW (2008) Eruptive history and tectonic setting of Medicine Lake Volcano, a large rear-arc volcano in the southern Cascades. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 177(2):313–328. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.04.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Donnelly-Nolan JM, Nolan KM (1986) Catastrophic flooding and eruption of ash-flow tuff at Medicine Lake Volcano, California. Geology 14(10):875–878. doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<875:CFAEOA>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Donnelly-Nolan JM, Stovall WK, Ramsey DW, Ewert JW, Jensen RA (2011) Newberry Volcano—Central Oregon’s Sleeping Giant. US Geol Surv Fact Sheet 2011–3145Google Scholar
  29. Dzurisin D (1992a) Electronic tiltmeters for volcano monitoring: lessons from Mount St. Helens. In: Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) Monitoring volcanoes: techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966:69–83Google Scholar
  30. Dzurisin D (1992b) Geodetic leveling as a tool for studying restless volcanoes. In: Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) Monitoring volcanoes: techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966:125–134Google Scholar
  31. Dzurisin D (1999) Results of repeated leveling surveys at Newberry Volcano, Oregon, and near Lassen Peak Volcano. Calif Bull Volcanol 61(1–2):83–91. doi: 10.1007/s004450050264 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dzurisin D (2000) Volcano geodesy: challenges and opportunities for the 21st century. Philos Trans R Soc Lond Ser A 358(1770):1547–1566. doi: 10.1098/rsta.2000.0603 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dzurisin D, Donnelly-Nolan JM, Evans JR, Walter SR (1991) Crustal subsidence, seismicity, and structure near Medicine Lake Volcano, California. J Geophys Res 96(B10):16,319–16,333. doi: 10.1029/91JB01452 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dzurisin D, Johnson DJ, Murray TL, Myers B (1982) Tilt networks of Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak, California. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 82–670, pp 42Google Scholar
  35. Dzurisin D, Johnson DJ, Symonds RB (1983b) Dry tilt network at Mount Rainier, Washington. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 83–277, pp 18Google Scholar
  36. Dzurisin D, Lisowski M, Poland MP, Sherrod DR, LaHusen RG (2008) Constraints and conundrums resulting from ground-deformation measurements made during the 2004–2005 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. In: Sherrod DR, Scott WE, Stauffer PH (eds) A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1850:281–300Google Scholar
  37. Dzurisin D, Lisowski M, Wicks CW (2009) Continuing inflation at Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR observations. Bull Volcanol 71(10):1091–1110. doi: 10.1007/s00445-009-0296-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dzurisin D, Lisowski M, Wicks CW (2017) Semipermanent GPS (SPGPS) as a volcano monitoring tool: rationale, method, and applications. J Volcanol Geotherm Res. doi: 10.1016/jvolgeores2017.03.007
  39. Dzurisin D, Lisowski M, Wicks CW Jr, Poland MP, Endo ET (2006) Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 150:35–54. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.07.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dzurisin D, Moran SC, Lisowski M, Schilling SP, Anderson KR, Werner C (2015) The 2004–2008 dome-building eruption at Mount St. Helens, Washington: epilogue. Bull Volcanol 77(10):89. doi: 10.1007/s00445-015-0973-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dzurisin D, Poland MP, Bürgmann R (2002) Steady subsidence of Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California, revealed by repeated leveling surveys. J Geophys Res 107(B12):2372. doi: 10.1029/2001JB000893 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dzurisin D, Westphal JA, Johnson DJ (1983a) Eruption prediction aided by electronic tiltmeter data at Mount St. Helens Sci 221(4618):1381–1383. doi: 10.1126/science.221.4618.1381 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ebmeier SK, Biggs J, Mather TA, Amelung F (2013) On the lack of InSAR observations of magmatic deformation at Central American volcanoes. J Geophys Res 118(5):2571–2585. doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50195 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Eichelberger JC (1981) Mechanism of magma mixing at Glass Mountain, Medicine Lake Highland volcano, California. In: Johnston DA, Donnelly-Nolan JM (eds) Guides to some volcanic terranes in Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and northern California. US Geol Surv Circ 838:183–189. New fumarolic activity on Mt. Baker: observations during April through July, 1975Google Scholar
  45. Eichelberger JC, Heiken G, Widdicombe R, Wright D, Keady CJ, Cobb DD (1976) New fumarolic activity on Mt. Baker: observations during April through July, 1975. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 1(1):35–53. doi: 10.1016/0377-0273(76)90017-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Endo ET, Malone SD, Noson LL, Weaver CS (1981) Locations, magnitudes, and statistics of the March 20–May 18 earthquake sequence. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:93–107Google Scholar
  47. Evans JR, Zucca JJ (1988) Active high-resolution seismic tomography of compressional wave velocity and attenuation structure at Medicine Lake Volcano, Northern California Cascade Range. J Geophys Res 93(B12):15,016–15,036. doi: 10.1029/JB093iB09p10135 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) (1992) Monitoring volcanoes; techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory, 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966Google Scholar
  49. Ewert JW, Guffanti M, Murray TL (2005) An assessment of volcanic threat monitoring cababilities in the United States: framework for a National Volcano Early Warning System. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 2005–1164, pp 62Google Scholar
  50. Frank D, Meier MF, Swanson DA (1977) Assessment of increased thermal activity at Mount Baker, Washington, March 1975–March 1976. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1022-A, pp 49Google Scholar
  51. Gardner JE, Carey S, Sigurdsson H (1998) Plinian eruptions at Glacier Peak and Newberry volcanoes, United States: implications for volcanic hazards in the Cascade Range. Geol Soc Am Bull 110(2):173–187. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1998)110<0173:PEAGPA>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Heath BA, Hooft EEE, Toomey DR, Bezada MJ (2015) Imaging the magmatic system of Newberry Volcano using joint active source and teleseismic tomography. Geochem Geophys Geosys 16(12):4433–4448. doi: 10.1002/2015GC006129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hildreth W (2007) Quaternary magmatism in the Cascades—geologic perspectives. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1744Google Scholar
  54. Hildreth W, Fierstein J (1997) Recent eruptions of Mount Adams, Washington Cascades, USA. Bull Volcanol 58(6):472–490. doi: 10.1007/s004450050156 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hildreth W, Fierstein J, Lanphere M (2003) Eruptive history and geochronology of the Mount Baker volcanic field, Washington. Geol Soc Am Bull 115(6):729–764. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(2003)115<0729:EHAGOT>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hildreth W, Lanphere MA (1994) Potassium-argon geochronology of a basalt-andesite-dacite arc system: the Mount Adams volcanic field, Cascade Range of southern Washington. Geol Soc Am Bull 106(11):1413–1429. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1994)106<1413:PAGOAB>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hodge BE, Crider JG (2010) Investigating mechanisms of edifice deflation, 1981–2007, at Mount Baker volcano, Washington, United States. J Geophys Res 115(B04401). doi: 10.1029/2009JB006730
  58. Hooper A (2008) A multi-temporal InSAR method incorporating both persistent scatterer and small baseline approaches. Geophys Res Lett 35(16). doi: 10.1029/2008GL034654
  59. Iwatsubo EY, Ewert JW, Murray TL (1992a) Monitoring radial crack deformation by displacement meters. In: Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) Monitoring volcanoes: techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966:95–101Google Scholar
  60. Iwatsubo EY, Swanson DA (1992a) Trilateration and distance-measuring techniques used at Cascades and other volcanoes. In: Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) Monitoring volcanoes: techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966:103–114Google Scholar
  61. Iwatsubo EY, Swanson DA (1992b) Methods used to monitor deformation of the crater floor and lava dome at Mount St. Helens, Washington. In: Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) Monitoring volcanoes: techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966:53–68Google Scholar
  62. Iwatsubo EY, Topinka L, Swanson DA (1992b) Slope-distance measurements to the flanks of Mount St. Helens, late 1980 through 1989. In: Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) Monitoring volcanoes: techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966:85–94Google Scholar
  63. Iwatsubo EY, Topinika L, Swanson DA (1988) Measurements of slope distances and zenith angles at Newberry and South Sister volcanoes, Oregon, 1985–1986. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 88–377Google Scholar
  64. Jachens RC, Dzurisin D, Elder WP, Saltus RW (1983) Precision gravity networks at Lassen Peak and Mount Shasta, California. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 83–192Google Scholar
  65. Jachens RC, Spydell DR, Pitts GS, Dzurisin D, Roberts CW (1981) Temporal gravity variations at Mount St. Helens, March-May 1980. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:175–182Google Scholar
  66. Jensen RA, Chitwood LA (2000) Late Holocene uplift of caldera floor, Newberry Volcano, central Oregon. What’s new at Newberry Volcano, Oregon: guidebook for the friends of the Pleistocene eighth annual Pacific northwest cell field trip 88–96.Google Scholar
  67. Kwoun O-I, Lu Z, Neal C, Wicks C Jr (2006) Quiescent deformation of the Aniakchak Caldera, Alaksa, mapped by InSAR. Geology 34(1):5–8. doi: 10.1130/G22015.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. LaHusen RG, Swinford KJ, Logan M, Lisowski M (2008) Instrumentation in remote and dangerous settings; examples using data from GPS “spider” deployments during the 2004–2005 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. In: Sherrod DR, Scott WE, Stauffer PH (eds) A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1850:335–345Google Scholar
  69. Langbein J (2008) Noise in GPS displacement measurements from Southern California and Southern Nevada. J Geophys Res 113(B5). doi: 10.1029/2007JB005247
  70. Lipman PW, Moore JG, Swanson DA (1981) Bulging of the north flank before the May 18 eruption—geodetic data. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:143–155Google Scholar
  71. Lisowski M, Dzurisin D, Denlinger RP, Iwatsubo EY (2008) Analysis of GPS-measured deformation associated with the 2004–2006 dome-building eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. In: Sherrod DR, Scott WE, Stauffer PH (eds) A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1850:301–333Google Scholar
  72. Lu Z and Dzurisin D (2014) InSAR imaging of Aleutian volcanoes—monitoring a volcanic arc from space: Springer-Praxis Books, Geophysical Sciences, 978-3-642-00347-9, 388 pGoogle Scholar
  73. Lu Z, Masterlark T, Power JA, Dzurisin D, Wicks C (2002) Subsidence at Kiska Volcano, Western Aleutians, detected by satellite radar interferometry. Geophys Res Let 29(18):1855. doi: 10.1029/2002GL014948 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. MacLeod NS Jr, Sherrod DR (1988) Geologic evidence for a magma chamber beneath Newberry Volcano, Oregon. J Geophys Res 93(B9):10,067–10,079. doi: 10.1029/JB093iB09p10067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Malone SD (1979) Gravity changes accompanying increased heat emission at Mount Baker, Washington. J. Volcanol Geotherm Res 6(3–4):241–256. doi: 10.1016/0377-0273(79)90004-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mandler BE, Donnelly-Nolan JM, Grove TL (2014) Straddling the tholeiitic/calc-alkaline transition: the effects of modest amounts of water on magmatic differentiation at Newberry Volcano, Oregon. Contrib Mineral Petrol 168(4):1066. doi: 10.1007/s00410-014-1066-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mastin LG (1994) Explosive tephra emissions at Mount St. Helens, 1989-1991: the violent escape of magmatic gas following storms? Geol Soc AmBull 106(2):175–185. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1994)106<0175:ETEAMS>2.3.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mastin LG, Lisowski M, Roeloffs E, Beeler N (2009) Improved constraints on the estimated size and volatile content of the Mount St. Helens magma system from the 2004–2008 history of dome growth and deformation. Geophys Res Lett 36(L20304). doi: 10.1029/2009GL039863
  79. Miller CD (1980) Potential hazards from future eruptions in the vicinity of Mount Shasta Volcano, Northern California. US Geol Surv Bull 1503Google Scholar
  80. Mogi K (1958) Relations between the eruptions of various volcanoes and the deformations of the ground surfaces around them. Bull Earthquake Res Inst 36(2):99–134Google Scholar
  81. Moran SC (1994) Seismicity at Mount St. Helens, 1987-1992: evidence for repressurization of an active magmatic system. J Geophys Res 99(B3):4341–4354. doi: 10.1029/93JB02993 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Muffler LP, Clynne MA (2015) Geologic field-trip guide to Lassen Volcanic National Park and vicinity, California. US Geol Surv Sci Investig Rep 2015–5067, pp 67. doi: 10.3133/sir20155067
  83. Mullineaux DR, Crandell DR (1981) The eruptive history of Mount St. Helens. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:3–15Google Scholar
  84. Musumeci C, Gresta S, Malone SD (2002) Magma system recharge of Mount St. Helens from precise relative hypocenter location of microearthquakes. J Geophys Res 107(B10). doi: 10.1029/2001JB000629
  85. Nichols ML, Malone SD, Moran SC, Thelen WA, Vidale JE (2011) Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 200(3–4):116–128. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Parker AL, Biggs J, Lu Z (2014) Investigating long-term subsidence at Medicine Lake Volcano, CA, using multitemporal InSAR. Geophys J Int 199(2):844–859. doi: 10.1093/gji/ggu304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Parker AL, Biggs J, Lu Z (2016) Time-scale and mechanism of subsidence at Lassen Volcanic Center, CA, from InSAR. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 320:117–127. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2016.04.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Parker AL, Biggs J, Walters RJ, Ebmeier SK, Wright TJ, Teanby NA, Lu Z (2015) Systematic assessment of atmospheric uncertainties for InSAR data at volcanic arcs using large-scale atmospheric models: application to the Cascade volcanoes, United States. Rem Sens Environ 170:102–114. doi: 10.1016/j.rse.2015.09.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Pierson TC, Pringle PT, Cameron KA (2010) Magnitude and timing of downstream channel aggradation and degradation in response to a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood, Oregon. Geol Soc A Bull 123(1–2):3–20. doi: 10.1130/B30127.1 Google Scholar
  90. Poland M, Bawden G, Lisowski M, Dzurisin D (2004) Newly discovered subsidence at Lassen Peak, southern Cascade Range, California, from InSAR and GPS. Am Geophys Union Fall Meet, Dec. 13–17, San Fran., Calif., Abstract G51A-0068.Google Scholar
  91. Poland MP, Bürgmann R, Dzurisin D, Lisowski M, Masterlark T, Owen S, Fink JH (2006) Constraints on the mechanism of long-term, steady subsidence at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California, from GPS, leveling, and InSAR. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 150(1–3):55–78. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2005.07.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Poland MP, Lu Z (2008) Radar interferometry observations of surface displacements during pre- and coeruptive periods at Mount St. Helens, Washington, 1992–2005. In: Sherrod DR, Scott WE, Stauffer PH (eds) A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1750:361–382Google Scholar
  93. Pritchard ME, Simons M (2002) A satellite geodetic survey of large-scale deformation of volcanic centres in the central Andes. Nature 418:167–171. doi: 10.1038/nature00872 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pritchard ME, Simons M (2004) An InSAR-based survey of volcanic deformation in the Southern Andes. Geophys Res Lett 31(15). doi: 10.1029/2004GL020545
  95. Riddick SN, Schmidt DA (2011) Time-dependent changes in volcanic inflation rate near Three Sisters, Oregon, revealed by InSAR. Geochem Geophys Geosys 12(Q12005). doi: 10.1029/2011GC003826
  96. Savage JC, Gan W, Svarc JL (2001) Strain accumulation and rotation in the Eastern California Shear Zone. J Geophys Res 106(B10):21,995–22,007. doi: 10.1029/2000JB000127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Scandone R, Malone SD (1985) Magma supply, magma discharge and readjustment of the feeding system of Mount St. Helens during 1980. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23(3–4):239–262. doi: 10.1016/0377-0273(85)90036-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Schilling SP, Thompson RA, Messerich JA, Iwatsubo EY (2008) Use of digital aerophotogrammetry to determine rates of lava dome growth, Mount St. Helens, Washington, 2004–2005. In: Sherrod DR, Scott WE, Stauffer PH (eds) A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1850:145–167Google Scholar
  99. Scott WE (1977) Quaternary glaciation and volcanism, Metolius River area, Oregon. Geol Soc Am Bull 88(1):113–124. doi: 10.1130/0016-7606(1977)88<113:QGAVMR>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Scott WE (1987) Holocene rhyodacite eruptions on the flanks of South Sister volcano, Oregon. In: Fink JH (ed) The emplacement of silicic domes and lava flows. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 212:35–54Google Scholar
  101. Scott WE, Gardner CA, Sherrod DR, Tilling RI, Lanphere MA, Conrey RM (1997) Geologic history of Mount Hood volcano, Oregon—a field-trip guidebook. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 97–263Google Scholar
  102. Scott WE, Sherrod DR, Gardner CA (2008) Overview of the 2004 to 2006, and continuing, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. In: Sherrod DR, Scott WE, Stauffer PH (eds) A volcano rekindled: the renewed eruption of Mount St. Helens, 2004–2006. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1850:3–22Google Scholar
  103. Segall P (2013) Volcano deformation and eruption forecasting. In: Pyle DM, Mather TA, Biggs J (eds) Remote sensing of volcanoes and volcanic processes: integrating observation and modelling. Geol Soc Spec Pub 380:85–106. doi: 10.1144/SP380.4
  104. Sherrod DR, Smith JG (1990) Quaternary extrusion rates of the Cascade Range, northwestern United States and southern British Columbia. J Geophys Res 95(B12):19,465–19,474. doi: 10.1029/JB095iB12p19465 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sisson TW, Lanphere MA (2000) The geologic history of Mount Rainier volcano, Washington. Wash Geol 28(1/2):28Google Scholar
  106. Sisson TW, Vallance JW (2009) Frequent eruptions of Mount Rainier over the last ~2,600 years. Bull Volcanol 71(6):595–618. doi: 10.1007/s00445-008-0245-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Swanson DA (1992) The importance of field observations for monitoring volcanoes, and the approach of “keeping monitoring as simple as practical.” In: Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) Monitoring volcanoes: techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966:219–223Google Scholar
  108. Swanson DA, Lipman PW, Moore JG, Heliker CC, Yamashita KM (1981) Geodetic monitoring after the May 18 eruption. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250:157–168Google Scholar
  109. Swanson DA, Casadevall TJ, Dzurisin D, Malone SD, Newhall CG, Weaver CS (1983) Predicting eruptions at Mount St. Helens, June 1980 through December 1982. Science 221(4618):1369–1376. doi: 10.1126/science.221.4618.1369 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Thelen WA (2016) Seismicity of cascade volcanoes: characterization and comparison. Am Geophys Union Fall Meet, Dec. 12–16, San Fran., Calif., Abstract V53C-3106Google Scholar
  111. Thompson RZ, Schilling SP (2007) Photogrammetry. In: Dzurisin D (ed) Volcano deformation: geodetic monitoring techniques. Springer-Praxis, Berlin, pp 195–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Tucker D, Hildreth W, Ullrich T, Friedman R (2007) Geology and complex collapse mechanisms of the 3.72 Ma Hannegan caldera, North Cascades, Washington, USA. Geol Soc Am Bull 119(3/4):329–342. doi: 10.1130/B25904.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vallance JW, Donaghue S (2000) Holocene eruptive history of Mount Rainier. Wash Geol 28(1/2):29Google Scholar
  114. Vincent P, Cladouhos TT, Schultz A, Rose K, Urquhart S (2013) Combining satellite and ground-based radar interferometry data to measure surface deformation associated with EGS pumping activities at Newberry Crater, OR geothermal site. Am Geophys Union Fall Meet, Dec. 9–13, San Fran., Calif., Abstract G31A-0953Google Scholar
  115. Walker GW (1974) Some implications of late Cenozoic volcanism to geothermal potential in the High Lava Plains of south-central Oregon. Ore Bin 36(7):109–118Google Scholar
  116. Werner C, Evans WC, Poland M, Tucker DS, Doukas MP (2009) Long-term changes in quiescent degassing at Mount Baker Volcano, Washington, USA; evidence for a stalled intrusion in 1975 and connection to a deep magma source. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 186(3–4):379–386. doi: 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wessel P, Smith WHF, Scharroo R, Luis JF, Wobbe F (2013) Generic mapping tools: improved version released. EOS Trans AGU 94(45):409–410. doi: 10.1002/2013EO450001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wicks CW Jr, Dzurisin D, Ingebritsen S, Thatcher W, Lu Z, Iverson J (2002) Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA. Geophys Res Lett 29(7). doi: 10.1029/2001GL014205
  119. Yamashita KM (1992) Single-setup leveling used to monitor vertical displacement (tilt) on Cascades volcanoes. In: Ewert JW, Swanson DA (eds) Monitoring volcanoes: techniques and strategies used by the staff of the Cascades Volcano Observatory 1980–90. US Geol Surv Bull 1966:143–149Google Scholar
  120. Yamashita K, Doukas MP (1987) Precise level lines at Crater Lake, Newberry Crater, and South Sister, Oregon. US Geol Surv Open File Rep:87–293Google Scholar
  121. Yamashita KM, Wieprecht DE (1995) Bench mark descriptions and photographs for Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in the vicinity of Mt. Shasta and Medicine Lake, California. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 95–811, pp 27Google Scholar
  122. Zucca JJ, Evans JR (1992) Active high-resolution compressional wave attenuation tomography at Newberry Volcano, central Cascade Range. J Geophys Res 97(B7):11,047–11,055. doi: 10.1029/92JB00492 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zurek J, William-Jones G, Johnson D, Eggers A (2012) Constraining volcanic inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling. Geochem Geophys Geosyst 13(10). doi: 10.1029/2012GC004341

Copyright information

© US Government (outside the USA) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael P. Poland
    • 1
  • Michael Lisowski
    • 1
  • Daniel Dzurisin
    • 1
  • Rebecca Kramer
    • 1
  • Megan McLay
    • 1
  • Ben Pauk
    • 1
  1. 1.U.S. Geological Survey, David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano ObservatoryVancouverUSA

Personalised recommendations