Bulletin of Volcanology

, 78:81 | Cite as

Eruptive history of Sundoro volcano, Central Java, Indonesia since 34 ka

  • Oktory PrambadaEmail author
  • Yoji Arakawa
  • Kei Ikehata
  • Ryuta Furukawa
  • Akira Takada
  • Haryo Edi Wibowo
  • Mitsuhiro Nakagawa
  • M. Nugraha Kartadinata
Research Article


Reconstruction of the eruptive history of Sundoro volcano is needed to forecast the probability of future eruptions and eruptive volumes. Sundoro volcano is located in Central Java (Indonesia), 65 km northwest of Yogyakarta, and in one of the most densely populated areas of Indonesia. On the basis of stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, petrography, and whole-rock geochemistry, we recognize the following 12 eruptive groups: (1) Ngadirejo, (2) Bansari, (3) Arum, (4) Kembang, (5) Kekep, (6) Garung, (7) Kertek, (8) Watu, (9) Liyangan, (10) Kledung, (11) Summit, and (12) Sibajak. The Ngadirejo (34 ka BP) to Kledung (1 ka) eruptive groups are inferred to have been the stratovolcano building phase. Based on compositions of deposits, one or more magma reservoirs of intermediate chemical composition are inferred to have existed below the volcano during the periods of time represented by the eruptive groups. SiO2 of juvenile eruptive products ranges from 50 to 63 wt%, and K2O contents range from high K to medium K. The chemical composition and phenocryst content of eruptive products change with time. The lower SiO2 products contain mainly plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine, whereas the more evolved rocks contain plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, and rare hornblende and olivine. Our work has defined Sundoro’s eruptive history for the period 1–34 ka, and this history helps us to forecast future activity. We estimated that the total amount of magma discharged since 34 ka is approximately 4.4 km3. The average eruption rate over this group ranges from 0.14 to 0.17 km3/kyr. The eruption rate and the frequency of individual eruptions indicate that the volcano has been very active since 34 ka, and this activity in combination with our petrological data suggest the presence of one or more magma reservoirs that have been repeatedly filled and then discharged as eruptions have taken place. Our data further suggest that the volume of the crustal reservoir system has increased with time, such that explosive eruptions are more likely in the future and that they may be larger than the most recent small eruptions.


Sundoro volcano Petrology medium K Eruptive group Eruption rate Volcanic history Stratigraphy Forecasting 



We are grateful to John S. Pallister for the comment, checking on earlier versions of the manuscript, that significantly improved the English structure. We like to thank Dr. Christopher G. Newhall and Dr. Karen Fontijn for providing us with helpful and constructive comments. We also like to thank Dr. Stephen Self and Dr. James D.L. White for editorial handling and an anonymous associate editor from Springer for constructive suggestions. We also give great thanks to all members of our laboratory at University of Tsukuba for discussions throughout the work.

Supplementary material

445_2016_1079_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.7 mb)
Figure S1 Localities of 115 outcrops around Sundoro studied during extensive fieldwork in August 2014 and August 2015. Relief map generated from ASTER GDEM satellite image with 30 m pixels. (DOCX 1730 kb)
445_2016_1079_MOESM2_ESM.docx (2.2 mb)
Figure S2 Spatial morphological control for distinguishing volcanic group distribution using stereo contour map generated from ASTER GDEM images with 30 m pixels complemented by SRTMGL1 1 s-DEM of Awata (2015). Extent of lava flow and dome represented by blue line. Crater rim and erosion scarp represented by red line. Pyroclastic cone represented by yellow line. (DOCX 2265 kb)
445_2016_1079_MOESM3_ESM.docx (27 kb)
Table S1 Top ten of the largest population near active volcanoes (Small et al., 2001) (DOCX 27 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of Life and Environmental SciencesEarth Evolution Science-University of TsukubaTsukubaJapan
  2. 2.Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM)Geological Agency of Indonesia, Ministry of Energy and Mineral ResourcesBandungIndonesia
  3. 3.Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ)The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)IbarakiJapan
  4. 4.Division of Earth and Planetary System ScienceHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

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