Monitoring crater-wall collapse at active volcanoes: a study of the 12 January 2013 event at Stromboli

  • Sonia Calvari
  • Emanuele Intrieri
  • Federico Di Traglia
  • Alessandro Bonaccorso
  • Nicola Casagli
  • Antonio Cristaldi
Research Article

Abstract

Crater-wall collapses are fairly frequent at active volcanoes and they are normally studied through the analysis of their deposits. In this paper, we present an analysis of the 12 January 2013 crater-wall collapse occurring at Stromboli volcano, investigated by means of a monitoring network comprising visible and infrared webcams and a Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. The network revealed the triggering mechanisms of the collapse, which are comparable to the events that heralded the previous effusive eruptions in 1985, 2002, 2007 and 2014. The collapse occurred during a period of inflation of the summit cone and was preceded by increasing explosive activity and the enlargement of the crater. Weakness of the crater wall, increasing magmastatic pressure within the upper conduit induced by ascending magma and mechanical erosion caused by vent opening at the base of the crater wall and by lava fingering, are considered responsible for triggering the collapse on 12 January 2013 at Stromboli. We suggest that the combination of these factors might be a general mechanism to generate crater-wall collapse at active volcanoes.

Keywords

Stromboli volcano Remote sensing Visible and infrared webcam monitoring Ground-based radar interferometry Crater-wall collapse Volcano instability 

References

  1. Acocella V (2005) Modes of sector collapse of volcanic cones: insights from analogue experiments. J Geophys Res 110 (B02205). doi: 10.1029/2004JB003166
  2. Acocella V, Neri M (2009) Dike propagation in volcanic edifices: overview and possible developments. Tectonophysics 471:67–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarado GE, Soto GJ (2002) Pyroclastic flow generated by crater-wall collapse and outpouring of the lava pool of Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica. Bull Volcanol 63(8):557–568. doi:10.1007/s00445-001-0179-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andronico D, Corsaro RA, Cristaldi A, Polacci M (2008) Characterizing high energy explosive eruptions at Stromboli volcano using multidisciplinary data: an example from the 9 January 2005 explosion. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 176:541–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Antonello G, Casagli N, Farina P, Leva D, Nico G, Sieber AJ, Tarchi D (2004) Ground-based SAR interferometry for monitoring mass movements. Landslides 1(1):21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baer G (1991) Mechanisms of dike propagation in layered rocks and in massive, porous sedimentary rocks. J Geophys Res 96(B7):11,911–11,929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagnardi M, Poland MP, Carbone D, Baker S, Battaglia M, Amelung F (2014) Gravity changes and deformation at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaii, associated with summit eruptive activity, 2009–2012. J Geophys Res-Sol EA 119(9):7288–7305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barberi F, Rosi M, Sodi A (1993) Volcanic hazard assessment at Stromboli based on review of historical data. Acta Vulcanol 3:173–187Google Scholar
  9. Barberi F, Civetta L, Rosi M, Scandone R (2009) Chronology of the 2007 eruption of Stromboli and the activity of the scientific synthesis group. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 182:123–130. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.09.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Battaglia M, Di Bari M, Acocella V, Neri M (2011) Dike emplacement and flank instability at Mount Etna: constraints from a poro-elastic-model of flank collapse. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 199:153–164. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Behncke B, Neri M, Carniel R (2003) An exceptional case of lava dome growth spawning pyroclastic avalanches at Mt. Etna (Italy): the 1999 Bocca Nuova eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 124:115–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Behncke B, Calvari S, Giammanco S, Neri M, Pinkerton H (2008) Pyroclastic density currents resulting from the interaction of basaltic magma with hydrothermally altered rock: an example from the 2006 summit eruptions of Mount Etna, Italy. Bull Volcanol 70(10):1249–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bertagnini A, Coltelli M, Landi P, Pompilio M, Rosi M (1999) Violent explosions yield new insights into dynamics of Stromboli volcano. Eos AGU Trans 80(52):633–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bertolaso G, Bonaccorso A, Boschi E (2008) Scientific community and civil protection synergy during the Stromboli 2002–2003 eruption. In: Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption. AGU Geophys Monogr Ser 182:387–397. doi:10.1029/182GM31 Google Scholar
  15. Billi A, Acocella V, Funiciello R, Giordano G, Lanzafame G, Neri M (2003) Mechanisms for ground-surface fracturing and incipient slope failure associated with the 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy: analysis of ephemeral field data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 122:281–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bonaccorso A, Gambino S, Guglielmino F, Mattia M, Puglisi G, Boschi E (2008) Stromboli 2007 eruption: deflation modeling to infer shallow-intermediate plumbing system. Geophys Res Lett 35:L06311. doi:10.1029/2007GL032921 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bonaccorso A, Calvari S, Linde A, Sacks S, Boschi E (2012) Dynamics of the shallow plumbing system investigated from borehole strain meters and cameras during the 15 March, 2007 Vulcanian paroxysm at Stromboli volcano. Earth Plan Sci Lett 357–358:249–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bonforte A, Guglielmino F (2015) Very shallow dyke intrusion and potential slope failure imaged by ground deformation: the 28 December 2014 eruption on Mount Etna. Geophys Res Lett 42. doi: 10.1002/2015GL063462
  19. Browning J, Drymoni K, Gudmundsson A (2015) Forecasting magma-chamber rupture at Santorini volcano, Greece. Sci Rep 5:15785. doi:10.1038/srep15785 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burton MR, Calvari S, Spampinato L, Lodato L, Pino NA, Marchetti E, Murè F (2008) Volcanic and seismic activity at Stromboli preceding the 2002–2003 eruption. In: Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption. AGU Geophys Monogr Ser 182:93–104. doi:10.1029/182GM09 Google Scholar
  21. Calvari S, Pinkerton H (2002) Instabilities in the summit region of Mount Etna during the 1999 eruption. Bull Volcanol 63:526–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Calvari S, Pinkerton H (2004) Birth, growth and morphologic evolution of the “Laghetto” cinder cone during the 2001 Etna eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 132:225–239. doi:10.1016/S0377-0273(03)00347-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Calvari S, Spampinato L, Lodato L et al. (2005) Chronology and complex volcanic processes during the 2002-2003 flank eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy) reconstructed from direct observations and surveys with a handheld thermal camera. J Geophys Res 110 (B02201). doi: 10.1029/2004JB003129
  24. Calvari S, Spampinato L, Lodato L (2006) The 5 April 2003 vulcanian paroxysmal explosion at Stromboli volcano (Italy) from field observations and thermal data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 149(1):160–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Calvari S, Lodato L, Steffke A et al. (2010) The 2007 Stromboli eruption: event chronology and effusion rates using thermal infrared data. J Geophys Res 115 (B04201). doi: 10.1029/2009JB006478
  26. Calvari S, Buttner R, Cristaldi A et al. (2012) The 7 September 2008 Vulcanian explosion at Stromboli volcano: multiparametric characterization of the event and quantification of the ejecta. J Geophys Res 117 (B05201). doi: 10.1029/2011JB009048
  27. Calvari S, Bonaccorso A, Madonia P, Neri M, Liuzzo M, Salerno GG, Behncke B, Caltabiano T, Cristaldi A, Giuffrida G, La Spina A, Marotta E, Ricci T, Spampinato L (2014) Major eruptive style changes induced by structural modifications of a shallow conduit system: the 2007–2012 Stromboli case. Bull Volcanol 76:841. doi:10.1007/s00445-014-0841-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Carrier A, Got JL, Peltier A, Ferrazzini V, Staudacher T, Kowalski P, Boissier P (2015) A damage model for volcanic edifices: implications for edifice strength, magma pressure, and eruptive processes. J Geophys Res 120(1):567–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Casagli N, Tibaldi A, Merri A, Del Ventisette C, Apuani T, Guerri L, Fortuny-Guasch J, Tarchi D (2009) Deformation of Stromboli volcano (Italy) during the 2007 eruption revealed by radar interferometry, numerical modelling and structural geological field data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 182:182–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Charbonnier SJ, Gertisser R (2009) Numerical simulations of block-and-ash flows using the Titan 2D flow model: examples from the 2006 eruption of Merapi Volcano, Java, Indonesia. Bull Volcanol 71(8):953–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chouet B, Hamisevicz N, McGetchin TR (1974) Photoballistics of volcanic jet activity at Stromboli, Italy. J Geophys Res 79(32):4961–4976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cigolini C, Laiolo M, Coppola D (2014) Revisiting the last major eruptions at Stromboli volcano: inferences on the role of volatiles during magma storage and decompression. Zellmer GF, Edmonds M, Straub SM (eds), The role of volatiles in the genesis, evolution and eruption of arc magmas. Geol Soc London Special Publ 410:33–70Google Scholar
  33. Cobeñas G, Thouret J-C, Bonadonna C, Boivin P (2012) The c.2030 yr BP Plinian eruption of El Misti volcano, Peru: eruption dynamics and hazard implications. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 241–242:105–120. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2012.06.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cole PD, Scarpati C (2010) The 1944 eruption of Vesuvius, Italy: combining contemporary accounts and field studies for a new volcanological reconstruction. Geol Mag 147(3):391–415. doi:10.1017/S0016756809990495 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cole PD, Calder ES, Druitt TH, Hoblitt RP, Robertson R, Sparks RSJ, Young SR (1998) Pyroclastic flow generated by gravitational instability of the 1996–97 lava dome of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Geophys Res Lett 25(18):3425–3428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cole PD, Calder ES, Sparks RSJ et al. (2002) Deposits from dome-collapse and fountain-collapse pyroclastic flows at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. In: Druitt TH and Kokelaar BP (eds) The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Geol Soc London Mem 21: 231–262Google Scholar
  37. Cole PD, Fernandez E, Duarte E, Duncan AM (2005) Explosive activity and generation mechanisms of pyroclastic flows at Arenal volcano, Costa Rica between 1987 and 2001. Bull Volcanol 67(8):695–716CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Coppola D, Piscopo D, Laiolo M, Cigolini C, Delle Donne D, Ripepe M (2012) Radiative heat power at Stromboli volcano during 2000–2011: twelve years of MODIS observations. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 215–216:48–60. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.12.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. De Fino M, La Volpe L, Falsaperla S, Frazzetta G, Neri G, Francalanci L, Rosi M, Sbrana A (1988) The Stromboli eruption of December 6, 1985—April 25, 1986: volcanological, petrological and seismological data. Rend Soc It Min Petr 43:1021–1038Google Scholar
  40. Di Traglia F, Ventisette C, Rosi M, Mugnai F, Intrieri E, Moretti S, Casagli N (2013) Ground-based InSAR reveals conduit pressurization pulses at Stromboli volcano. Terra Nov. 25(3):192–198Google Scholar
  41. Di Traglia F, Cauchie L, Casagli N, Saccorotti G (2014a) Decrypting geophysical signals at Stromboli Volcano (Italy): integration of seismic and ground-based InSAR displacement data. Geophys Res Lett 41:2753–2761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Di Traglia F, Intrieri E, Nolesini T, Bardi F, Del Ventisette C, Ferrigno F, Frangioni S, Frodella W, Gigli G, Lotti A, Tacconi Stefanelli C, Tanteri L, Leva D, Casagli N (2014b) The Ground-Based InSAR monitoring system at Stromboli volcano: linking changes in displacement rate and intensity of persistent volcanic activity. Bull Volcanol 76(2):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Di Traglia F, Nolesini T, Intrieri E, Mugnai F, Leva D, Rosi M, Casagli N (2014c) Review of ten years of volcano deformations recorded by the ground-based InSAR monitoring system at Stromboli volcano: a tool to mitigate volcano flank dynamics and intense volcanic activity. Earth-Sci Rev 139:317–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Di Traglia F, Battaglia M, Nolesini T, Lagomarsino D, Casagli N (2015) Shifts in the eruptive styles at Stromboli in 2010–2014 revealed by ground-based InSAR data. Sci Rep 5:13569. doi:10.1038/srep13569 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Elsworth D, Day SJ (1999) Flank collapse triggered by intrusion: the Canarian and Cape Verde Archipelagoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 94:323–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Erarslan N, Williams DJ (2015) The damage mechanism of rock fatigue and its relationship to the fracture toughness of rocks. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 56:15–26Google Scholar
  47. Eychenne J, Le Pennec J-L, Ramon P, Yepes H (2013) Dynamics of explosive paroxysms at open-vent andesitic systems: high-resolution mass distribution analyses of the 2006 Tungurahua fall deposit (Ecuador). Earth Plan Sci Lett 361:343–355. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2012.11.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Francalanci L, Lucchi F, De Astis G, Tranne CA (2013) Eruptive, volcano-tectonic and magmatic history of the Stromboli volcano (north-eastern Aeolian archipelago). Lucchi F, Peccerillo A, Keller J, Tranne CA, Rossi PL (eds) The Aeolian Islands Volcanoes. Geol Soc London Memoirs 37:397–471. doi:10.1144/M37.13 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gaudin D, Moroni M, Taddeucci J, Scarlato P, Shindler L (2014) Pyroclast tracking velocimetry: a particle tracking velocimetry-based tool for the study of Strombolian explosive eruptions. J Geophys Res 119:5369–5383. doi:10.1002/2014JB011096 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gertisser R, Charbonnier SJ, Troll VR, Keller J, Preece K, Chadwick JP, Barclay J, Herd RA (2011) Merapi (Java, Indonesia): anatomy of a killer volcano. Geol Today 27:57–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Geshi N, Neri M (2014) Dynamic feeder dyke systems in basaltic volcanoes: the exceptional example of the 1809 Etna eruption (Italy). Front Earth Sci 2(13):1–11. doi:10.3389/feart.2014.00013 Google Scholar
  52. Giordano G, Porreca M (2009) Field observations on the initial lava flow and the fracture system developed during the early days of the Stromboli 2007 eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 182:145–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gudmundsson A (2009) Toughness and failure of volcanic edifices. Tectonophysics 471:7–35. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2009.03.001 Google Scholar
  54. Gudmundsson A (2012) Strengths and strain energies of volcanic edifices: implications for eruptions, collapse calderas, and landslides. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 12:2241–2258. doi:10.5194/nhess-12-2241-201 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Guest JE, Huntingdon AT, Wadge G, Brander JL, Booth B, Carter S, Duncan A (1974) Recent eruption of Mount Etna. Nature 250:385–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Harris A (2013) Thermal remote sensing of active volcanoes: a user’s manual. Cambridge University Press 728 pp, ISBN 978-0-521-85945-5Google Scholar
  57. Harris AJL, Ripepe M, Calvari S et al. (2008) The 5 April 2003 Explosion of Stromboli: timing of eruption dynamics using thermal data. Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli Volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption. AGU Geophys Monogr Ser 182:305–316. doi: 10.1029/182GM25
  58. Hazlett RW, Buesch D, Anderson JL, Elan R, Scandone R (1991) Geology, failure conditions, and implications of seismogenic avalanches of the 1944 eruption at Vesuvius, Italy. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 47:249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Heap MJ, Vinciguerra S, Meredith PG (2009) The evolution of elastic moduli with increasing crack damage during cyclic stressing of a basalt from Mt. Etna Volcano Tectonophysics 471:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Heap MJ, Baud P, Meredith PG, Vinciguerra S, Bell AF, Main IG (2011) Brittle creep in basalt and its application to time-dependent volcano deformation. Earth Plan Sci Lett 307(1):71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Houghton BF, Schmincke H-U (1989) Rothenberg scoria cone, East Eifel: a complex Strombolian and phreatomagmatic volcano. Bull Volcanol 52:28–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Intrieri E, Di Traglia F, Del Ventisette C, Gigli G, Mugnai F, Luzi G, Casagli N (2013) Flank instability of Stromboli volcano (Aeolian Islands, Southern Italy): integration of GB-InSAR and geomorphological observations. Geomorphology 201:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leduc L, Gurioli L, Harris A et al. (2015) Types and mechanisms of Strombolian explosions: characterization of a gas-dominated explosion at Stromboli. Bull Volcanol 77(8). doi: 10.1007/s00445-014-0888-5
  64. Lu Z, Power JA, McConnell VS, Wicks C Jr, Dzurisin D (2002) Preeruptive inflation and surface interferometric coherence characteristics revealed by satellite radar interferometry at Makushin Volcano, Alaska: 1993–2000. J Geophys Res 107(B11):2266. doi:10.1029/2001JB000970 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Lu Z, Masterlark T, Dzurisin D, Rykhus R, Wicks C Jr (2003) Magma supply dynamics at Westdahl volcano, Alaska, modeled from satellite radar interferometry. J Geophys Res 108(B7):2354. doi:10.1029/2002JB002311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lu Z, Dzurisin D, Biggs J, Wicks C Jr, McNutt S (2010) Ground surface deformation patterns, magma supply, and magma storage at Okmok volcano, Alaska, from InSAR analysis: 1. intereruption deformation, 1997–2008. J Geophys Res 115(B5):B00B02. doi:10.1029/2009JB006969 Google Scholar
  67. Lube G, Cronin SJ, Platz T, Freundt A, Procter JN, Henderson C, Sheridan MF (2007) Flow and deposition of pyroclastic granular flows: a type example from the 1975 Ngauruhoe eruption, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 161:165–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lodato L, Spampinato L, Harris AJL, Calvari S, Dehn J, Patrick M (2007), The morphology and evolution of the stromboli 2002-03 lava flow field: an example of basaltic flow field emplaced on a steep slope. Bull Volcanol 69:661–679. doi:10.1007/s00445-006-0101-6
  69. Luzi G, Pieraccini M, Mecatti D, Noferini L, Guidi G, Moia F, Atzeni C (2004) Ground-based radar interferometry for landslides monitoring: atmospheric and instrumental decorrelation sources on experimental data. IEEE Trans Geosci Rem Sens 42:2454–2466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Macfarlane DG, Wadge G, Robertson DA, James MR, Pinkerton H (2006) Use of a portable topographic mapping millimetre wave radar at an active lava flow. Geophys Res Lett 33(3):L03301. doi:10.1029/2005GL025005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Marchetti E, Genco R, Ripepe M (2009) Ground deformation and seismicity related to the propagation and drainage of the dyke feeding system during the 2007 effusive eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 182(3):155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marsella M, Baldi P, Coltelli M, Fabris M (2012) The morphological evolution of the Sciara del Fuoco since 1868: reconstructing the effusive activity at Stromboli volcano. Bull Volcanol 74(1):231–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martini M, Giudicepietro F, D’Auria L, Esposito AM, Caputo T, Curciotti R, De Cesare W, Orazi M, Scarpato G, Caputo A, Peluso R, Ricciolino P, Linde A, Sacks S (2007) Seismological monitoring of the February 2007 effusive eruption of the Stromboli volcano. Ann Geophys 50(6):775–788Google Scholar
  74. McGuire WJ, Pullen AD (1989) Location and orientation of eruptive fissures and feeder-dykes at Mount Etna; influence of gravitational and regional tectonic stress regimes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 38:325–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (2002) Dynamics of magma ascent and lava extrusion at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Druitt TH, Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Geol Soc London Memoirs 21:153–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Miyabuchi Y, Watanabe K, Egawa Y (2006) Bomb-rich basaltic pyroclastic flow deposit from Nakadake, Aso Volcano, southwestern Japan. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 155:90–103. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2006.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Neri M, Lanzafame G (2009) Structural features of the 2007 Stromboli eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 182:137–144. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.07.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Parcheta CE, Houghton BF, Swanson DA (2012) Hawaiian fissure fountains 1: decoding deposits—episode 1 of the 1969–1974 Mauna Ulu eruption. Bull Volcanol 74:1729–1743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Patrick MR (2007) Dynamics of Strombolian ash plumes from thermal video: motion, morphology, and air entrainment. J Geophys Res 112(B06202). doi: 10.1029/2006JB004387
  80. Patrick MR, Harris AJL, Ripepe M, Dehn J, Rothery DA, Calvari S (2007) Strombolian explosive styles and source conditions: insights from thermal (FLIR) video. Bull Volcanol 69:769–784. doi:10.1007/s00445-006-0107-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Patrick MR, Anderson KR, Poland MP, Orr T, Swanson DA (2015) Lava lake level as a gauge of magma reservoir pressure and eruptive hazard. Geology 43:831–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Petronis MS, Delcamp A, van Wyk de Vries B (2013) Magma emplacement into the Lemptégy scoria cone (Chaîne Des Puys, France) explored with structural, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and Paleomagnetic data. Bull Volcanol 75(10):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Pinel V, Poland MP, Hooper A (2014) Volcanology: lessons learned from synthetic aperture radar imagery. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 289:81–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pioli L, Rosi M, Calvari S et al. (2008) The eruptive activity of 28 and 29 December 2002. Calvari S, Inguaggiato S, Puglisi G, Ripepe M, Rosi M (eds) The Stromboli volcano: an integrated study of the 2002–2003 eruption, American Geophysical Union Monograph Series 182:105–116. doi: 101029/182GM10, ISBN 978-0-87590-447-4Google Scholar
  85. Pistolesi M, Delle Donne D, Pioli L et al. (2011) The 15 March 2007 explosive crisis at Stromboli volcano, Italy: assessing physical parameters through a multidisciplinary approach. J Geophys Res 116(B12) (B12206). doi:10.1029/2011JB008527
  86. Ripepe M, Marchetti E, Poggi P, Harris AJL, Fiaschi A, Ulivieri G (2004) Seismic, acoustic, and thermal network monitors the 2003 eruption of Stromboli Volcano. EOS Trans 85(35):329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ripepe M, Delle Donne D, Lacanna G, Marchetti E, Ulivieri G (2009) The onset of the 2007 Stromboli effusive eruption recorded by an integrated geophysical network. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 182:131–136. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.02.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rittmann A (1931) Der ausbruch des Stromboli am 11 September 1930. Zeitschrift für vulkanologie 14:47–77, In GermanGoogle Scholar
  89. Rizzo AL, Federico C, Inguaggiato S, Sollami A, Tantillo M, Vita F, Bellomo S, Longo M, Grassa F, Liuzzo M (2015) The 2014 effusive eruption at Stromboli volcano (Italy): inferences from soil CO2 flux and 3He/4He ratio in thermal waters. Geophys Res Lett 42:2235–2243. doi:10.1002/2014GL062955 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Robertson REA, Aspinall WP, Herd RA, Norton GE, Sparks RSJ, Young SR (2000) The 1995–1998 eruption of the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, WI. Phil Trans Royal Soc London, Ser A 358(1770):1619–1637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rosi M, Bertagnini A, Harris AJL, Pioli L, Pistolesi M, Ripepe M (2006) A case history of paroxysmal explosion at Stromboli: timing and dynamics of the April 5, 2003 event. Earth Plan Sci Lett 243(3):594–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rosi M, Pistolesi M, Bertagnini A, Landi P, Pompilio M, Di Roberto A (2013) Stromboli volcano, Aeolian Islands (Italy): present eruptive activity and hazards. Geol Soc London Memoirs 37(1):473–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rudolf H, Leva D, Tarchi D et al. (1999) A mobile and versatile SAR system. Proc Geosci Remote Sens Symp, IGARSS 1999, Hamburg, 592–594Google Scholar
  94. Savov IP, Luhr J, Navarro-Ochoa C (2008) Petrology and geochemistry of lava and ash erupted from Volcan Colima, Mexico, during 1998–2005. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 174:241–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Slatcher N, James MR, Calvari S, Ganci G, Browning J (2015) Quantifying effusion rates at active volcanoes through integrated time-lapse laser scanning and photography. Remote Sens 7:14967–14987. doi:10.3390/rs71114967 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Spampinato L, Calvari S, Oppenheimer C, Boschi E (2011) Volcano surveillance using infrared cameras. Earth Sci Rev 106:63–91. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2011.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sparks RSJ, Barclay J, Calder ES, Herd RA, Komorowski J-C, Luckett R, Norton GE, Ritchie LJ, Voight B, Woods AW (2002) Generation of a debris avalanche and violent pyroclastic density current on 26 December (Boxing Day) 1997 at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Druitt TH and Kokelaar BP (eds) The Eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Geol Soc London Mem 21:409–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Staudacher T, Ferrazzini V, Peltier A, Kowalski P, Boissier P, Catherine P, Lauret F, Massin F (2009) The April 2007 eruption and the Dolomieu crater collapse, two major events at Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion Island, Indian Ocean). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 184:126–137. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.11.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sumner JM (1998) Formation of clastogenic lava flows during fissure eruption and scoria cone collapse: the 1986 eruption of Izu-Oshima Volcano, eastern Japan. Bull Volcanol 60:195–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tibaldi A (1996) Mutual influence of dyking and collapses at Stromboli volcano, Italy. McGuire WJ, Jones AP, Neuberg J (eds) Volcano instability on the earth and other planets. Geol Soc Special Publ 110:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tibaldi A (2001) Multiple sector collapses at Stromboli volcano, Italy: how they work. Bull Volcanol 63:112–125. doi:10.1007/s004450100129 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tommasi P, Baldi P, Chiocci F et al. (2005) The landslide sequence induced by the 2002 eruption at Stromboli volcano. Sassa K, Fukuoka H, Wang FW, Wang G (eds) Landslide - risk analysis and sustainable disaster management. Springer Verlag 251–258. ISBN: 3-540-28664-0Google Scholar
  103. Voight B, Komorowski J-C, Norton GE, Belousov AB, Belousova M, Boudon G, Francis PW, Franz W, Heinrich P, Sparks RSJ, Young SR (2002) The 26 December (Boxing Day) 1997 sector collapse and debris avalanche at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Druitt TH and Kokelaar BP (eds) The eruption of Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat, from 1995 to 1999. Geol Soc London Mem 21:363–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wadge G, Haynes M (1998) Cover radar images growth of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Int J Rem Sens 19(5):797–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wadge G, Scheuchl B, Stevens NF (2002) Spaceborne radar measurements of the eruption of Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat. Geol Soc London Mem 21(1):583–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wadge G, Macfarlane DG, Odbert HM, James MR, Hole JK, Ryan G, Bass V, De Angelis S, Pinkerton H, Robertson DA, Loughlin SC (2008) Lava dome growth and mass wasting measured by a time series of ground‐based radar and seismicity observations. J Geophys Res 113(B8):B08210. doi:10.1029/2007JB005466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wadge G, Cole P, Stinton A, Komorowski JC, Stewart R, Toombs AC, Legendre Y (2011) Rapid topographic change measured by high-resolution satellite radar at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, 2008–2010. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 199(1):142–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wadge G, Macfarlane DG, Odbert HM, Stinton A, Robertson DA, James MR, Pinkerton H (2014) AVTIS observations of lava dome growth at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat: 2004 to 2011. Geol Soc London Mem 39(1):229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wadsworth FB, Kennedy BM, Branney MJ, von Aulock FW, Lavallé Y, Menendez A (2015) Exhumed conduit records magma ascent and drain-back during a Strombolian eruption at Tongariro volcano, New Zealand. Bull Volcanol 77:71. doi:10.1007/s00445-015-0962-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zebker HA, Rosen PA, Hensley S (1997) Atmospheric effects in interferometric synthetic aperture radar surface deformation and topographic maps. J Geophys Res 102(B4):7547–7563CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonia Calvari
    • 1
  • Emanuele Intrieri
    • 2
  • Federico Di Traglia
    • 2
  • Alessandro Bonaccorso
    • 1
  • Nicola Casagli
    • 2
  • Antonio Cristaldi
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaOsservatorio Etneo - Sezione di CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di FirenzeFirenzeItaly

Personalised recommendations