Monitoring crater-wall collapse at active volcanoes: a study of the 12 January 2013 event at Stromboli

  • Sonia Calvari
  • Emanuele Intrieri
  • Federico Di Traglia
  • Alessandro Bonaccorso
  • Nicola Casagli
  • Antonio Cristaldi
Research Article


Crater-wall collapses are fairly frequent at active volcanoes and they are normally studied through the analysis of their deposits. In this paper, we present an analysis of the 12 January 2013 crater-wall collapse occurring at Stromboli volcano, investigated by means of a monitoring network comprising visible and infrared webcams and a Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. The network revealed the triggering mechanisms of the collapse, which are comparable to the events that heralded the previous effusive eruptions in 1985, 2002, 2007 and 2014. The collapse occurred during a period of inflation of the summit cone and was preceded by increasing explosive activity and the enlargement of the crater. Weakness of the crater wall, increasing magmastatic pressure within the upper conduit induced by ascending magma and mechanical erosion caused by vent opening at the base of the crater wall and by lava fingering, are considered responsible for triggering the collapse on 12 January 2013 at Stromboli. We suggest that the combination of these factors might be a general mechanism to generate crater-wall collapse at active volcanoes.


Stromboli volcano Remote sensing Visible and infrared webcam monitoring Ground-based radar interferometry Crater-wall collapse Volcano instability 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sonia Calvari
    • 1
  • Emanuele Intrieri
    • 2
  • Federico Di Traglia
    • 2
  • Alessandro Bonaccorso
    • 1
  • Nicola Casagli
    • 2
  • Antonio Cristaldi
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e VulcanologiaOsservatorio Etneo - Sezione di CataniaCataniaItaly
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Scienze della TerraUniversità di FirenzeFirenzeItaly

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