Dynamics of the January 2013–June 2014 explosive-effusive episode in the eruption of Volcán de Colima, México: insights from seismic and video monitoring
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Simultaneous seismic and video monitoring of the January 2013–June 2014 eruptive episode at the andesitic Volcán de Colima, México, allowed a detailed study of dynamics of eruption processes. The episode developed in two main phases: explosive, consisting of four Vulcanian explosions between 6 to 29 January 2013, and effusive, when the new crater excavated by the explosive sequence was filled, and a lava cap partially covered the 2007–2011 lava dome increasing the height of the lava dome in the crater from 3,854 to 3,881 m. The volume of this new lava dome above the reference level of 3,836 m was estimated as 1.3 × 106 m3. The mean rate of magma discharge during the growth of the new lava dome was estimated as 0.27 m3/s. Lava effusion was effectively finished by October 2013. The period from November 2013 to July 2014 was characterized by a gradual decrease in the number of small explosions and rockfalls. A conceptual model of this eruption episode is proposed. The ascent of magma began in the conduit at the depths of about 1,000 m beneath the crater according to the locations of explosive earthquakes. The January explosive sequence opened a pathway of magma to the surface. The ascending magma filled the western part of the crater forming a new lava dome.
KeywordsVolcán de Colima Eruption of January 2013–June 2014 Volcanic explosion Lava dome Video monitoring Seismic monitoring
The comments of Michelle Coombs, Servando de la Cruz-Reyna, and two anonymous reviewers helped to improve the manuscript. The students of Sinaloa University Juan Luis Cabanillas and Martín Carrillo Chávez helped us with the acquisition of the seismic signals of explosive events. Michelle Coombs and two anonymous reviewers strongly improved our English grammar. Digital seismic signals were processing using the program DEGTRA provided by Mario Ordaz, UNAM. We thank the governments of the states of Colima and Jalisco and the Civil Protection departments of these states for financial support of the systems of monitoring of activity of Volcán de Colima.
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