Bulletin of Volcanology

, 76:785 | Cite as

Magma–ice–sediment interactions and the origin of lava/hyaloclastite sequences in the Síða formation, South Iceland

  • Tenley J. Banik
  • Paul J. Wallace
  • Ármann Höskuldsson
  • Calvin F. Miller
  • Charles R. Bacon
  • David J. Furbish
Research Article

Abstract

Products of subglacial volcanism can illuminate reconstructions of paleo-environmental conditions on both local and regional scales. Competing interpretations of Pleistocene conditions in south Iceland have been proposed based on an extensive sequence of repeating lava-and-hyaloclastite deposits in the Síða district. We propose here a new eruptive model and refine the glacial environment during eruption based on field research and analytical data for the Síða district lava/hyaloclastite units. Field observations from this and previous studies reveal a repeating sequence of cogenetic lava and hyaloclastite deposits extending many kilometers from their presumed eruptive source. Glasses from lava selvages and unaltered hyaloclastites have very low H2O, S, and CO2 concentrations, indicating significant degassing at or close to atmospheric pressure prior to quenching. We also present a scenario that demonstrates virtual co-emplacement of the two eruptive products. Our data and model results suggest repeated eruptions under thin ice or partially subaerial conditions, rather than eruption under a thick ice sheet or subglacial conditions as previously proposed.

Keywords

Síða Magma/water interaction Lava/hyaloclastite sequences Glaciovolcanism Volatiles Degassing 

Supplementary material

445_2013_785_MOESM1_ESM.docx (509 kb)
ESM 1(DOCX 508 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tenley J. Banik
    • 1
  • Paul J. Wallace
    • 2
  • Ármann Höskuldsson
    • 3
  • Calvin F. Miller
    • 1
  • Charles R. Bacon
    • 4
  • David J. Furbish
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesVanderbilt UniversityNashvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of IcelandReykjavikIceland
  4. 4.U.S. Geological SurveyMenlo ParkUSA

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