Bulletin of Volcanology

, 75:773 | Cite as

Development of an automatic volcanic ash sampling apparatus for active volcanoes

  • Taketo Shimano
  • Takeshi Nishimura
  • Nobuyuki Chiga
  • Yoshinobu Shibasaki
  • Masato Iguchi
  • Daisuke Miki
  • Akihiko Yokoo
Short Scientific Communication

Abstract

We develop an automatic system for the sampling of ash fall particles, to be used for continuous monitoring of magma ascent and eruptive dynamics at active volcanoes. The system consists of a sampling apparatus and cameras to monitor surface phenomena during eruptions. The Sampling Apparatus for Time Series Unmanned Monitoring of Ash (SATSUMA-I and SATSUMA-II) is less than 10 kg in weight and works automatically for more than a month with a 10-kg lead battery to obtain a total of 30 to 36 samples in one cycle of operation. The time range covered in one cycle varies from less than an hour to several months, depending on the aims of observation, allowing researchers to target minute-scale fluctuations in a single eruptive event, as well as daily to weekly trends in persistent volcanic activity. The latest version, SATSUMA-II, also enables control of sampling parameters remotely by e-mail commands. Durability of the apparatus is high: our prototypes worked for several months, in rainy and typhoon seasons, at windy and humid locations, and under strong sunlight. We have been successful in collecting ash samples emitted from Showa crater almost everyday for more than 4 years (2008–2012) at Sakurajima volcano in southwest Japan.

Keywords

Volcanic ash Automatic sampling Time series data Multidisciplinary monitoring 

References

  1. Aiuppa A, Moretti R, Federico C, Giudice G, Gurrieri S, Liusso M, Papale P, Shinohara H, Velenza M (2007) Forecasting Etna eruptions by real-time observation of volcanic gas composition. Geology 35:1115–1118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson AT, Brown GG (1993) CO2 contents and formation pressures of some Kilauean melt inclusions. Am Mineral 78:794–803Google Scholar
  3. Andronico D, Cristaldi A, Del Carlo P, Taddeucci J (2009) Shifting styles of basaltic explosive activity during the 2002–03 eruption of Mt. Etna, Italy. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 180:110–122. doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2008.07.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bagnato E, Aiuppa A, Andronico D, Cristaldi A, Liotta M, Brusca L, Miraglia L (2011) Leachate analyses of volcanic ashes from Stromboli volcano: a proxy for the volcanic gas plume composition? J Geophys Res 116, D17204. doi:10.1029/2010JD015512 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barmin A, Melnik O, Sparks RSJ (2002) Periodic behavior in lava dome eruptions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 199:173–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Decker RW (1986) Forecasting volcanic eruptions. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 14:267–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dellino P, Gudmundsson MT, Larsen G, Mele D, Stevenson JA, Thordarson T, Zimanowski B (2012) Ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland): fragmentation processes and aerodynamic behavior. J Geophys Res 117, B00C04. doi:10.1029/2011JB008726
  8. Eichelberger JE, Carrigan CR, Westrich HR, Price RH (1986) Non-explosive silicic volcanism. Nature 233:598–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hammer JE, Cashman KV, Hoblitt RP, Newman S (1999) Degassing and microlite crystallization during pre-climactic events of the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines. Bull Volcanol 60:355–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Iguchi M, Yakiwara H, Tameguri T, Hendrasto M, Hirabayashi J (2008) Mechanism of explosive eruption revealed by geophysical observation at the Sakurajima, Suwanosejima, and Semeru volcanoes. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 178:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Imai A, Geshi N, Shimano T, Nakada S (2007) Implication of sulfur isotopic variation to 2000 eruptions of Miyake-jima volcano, Izu-Arc. Island Arc 16:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ishihara K (1990) Pressure sources and induced ground deformation associated with explosive eruptions at an andesitic volcano: Sakurajima volcano, Japan. In: Ryan MP (ed) Magma transport and storage. Wiley, New York 335–356Google Scholar
  13. Jaupart C, Allegre C (1991) Gas content, eruption rate and instabilities of eruption in silicic volcanoes. Earth Planet Sci Lett 102:413–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kagoshima Local Meteorological Observatory (2012) Monthly weather report of Kagoshima Prefecture. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
  15. Klug C, Cashman KV (1996) Permeability development in vesiculating magmas: implications for fragmentation. Bull Volcanol 58:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lautze NC, Taddeucci J, Andronico D, Cannata C, Tornetta L, Scarlato P, Houghton B, Lo Castro MD (2012) SEM-based methods for the analysis of basaltic ash from weak explosion activity at Etna in 2006 and the 2007 eruptive crisis at Stromboli. Phys Chem Earth 45–46:113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lockwood JP, Hazlett RW (2010) Volcanoes: global perspectives. Wiley-Blackwell, New York, pp. 552Google Scholar
  18. Miwa T, Toramaru A, Iguchi M (2009) Correlations of volcanic ash texture with explosion earthquakes from vulcanian eruptions at Sakurajima volcano, Japan. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 184:473–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nakamura M (1995) Residence time and crystallization history of nickeliferous olivine phenocrysts from the northern Yatsugatake volcanoes, Central Japan: application of a growth and diffusion model in the system Mg-Fe-Ni. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 66:81–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Newhall C (2000) Volcano warnings. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic, New York, pp 1185–1197Google Scholar
  21. Nogami K, Hirabayashi J, Ohba T, Ossaka J, Yamamoto M, Akagi S, Ozawa T, Yoshida M (2001) Temporal variations in the constituents of volcanic ash and adherent water-soluble components in the Unzen Fugendake eruption during 1990–1991. Earth Planets Space 53:723–730Google Scholar
  22. Noguchi S, Toramaru A, Nakada S (2008) Relation between microlite textures and discharge rate during the 1991–1995 eruptions at Unzen, Japan. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 175:141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shimano T, Iida A, Yoshimoto M, Yasuda A, Nakada S (2005) Petrological characteristics of the 2004 eruptive deposits of Asama volcano, Central Japan. Bull Volcanol Soc Jpn 50:315–332 (In Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  24. Sparks RSJ (2003) Forecasting volcanic eruptions. Earth Planet Sci Lett 210:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Taddeucci J, Pompilio M, Scarlato P (2002) Monitoring the explosive activity of the July-August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna (Italy) by ash characterization. Geophys Res Lett 29. doi:10.1029/2001GL014372
  26. Yokoo A, Iguchi M, Tameguri T, Yamamoto K (2013) Processes prior to outbursts of vulcanian eruption at Showa crater of Sakurajima volcano. Bull Volcanol Soc Japan 58:163–181Google Scholar
  27. Yoshimoto M, Shimano T, Nakada S, Koyama E, Tsuji H, Iida A, Kurokawa M, Okayama Y, Nonaka M, Kaneko T, Hoshizumi H, Ishizuka Y, Furukawa R, Nogami K, Onizawa S, Niihori K, Sugimoto T, Nagai M (2005) Mass estimation and characteristics of ejecta from the 2004 eruption of Asama volcano. Bull Volcanol Soc Jpn 50:519–533 (In Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taketo Shimano
    • 1
  • Takeshi Nishimura
    • 2
  • Nobuyuki Chiga
    • 3
  • Yoshinobu Shibasaki
    • 3
  • Masato Iguchi
    • 4
  • Daisuke Miki
    • 4
  • Akihiko Yokoo
    • 5
  1. 1.Graduate School of Environment and Disaster ResearchTokoha UniversityShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of ScienceTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  3. 3.Technical Division, Faculty of ScienceTohoku UniversitySendaiJapan
  4. 4.Sakurajima Volcano Research Center of DPRIKyoto UniversityKagoshimaJapan
  5. 5.Aso Volcanological Laboratory, Institute for Geothermal Science, Graduate School of ScienceKyoto UniversityMinami-AsoJapan

Personalised recommendations