Development of an automatic volcanic ash sampling apparatus for active volcanoes
- 515 Downloads
We develop an automatic system for the sampling of ash fall particles, to be used for continuous monitoring of magma ascent and eruptive dynamics at active volcanoes. The system consists of a sampling apparatus and cameras to monitor surface phenomena during eruptions. The Sampling Apparatus for Time Series Unmanned Monitoring of Ash (SATSUMA-I and SATSUMA-II) is less than 10 kg in weight and works automatically for more than a month with a 10-kg lead battery to obtain a total of 30 to 36 samples in one cycle of operation. The time range covered in one cycle varies from less than an hour to several months, depending on the aims of observation, allowing researchers to target minute-scale fluctuations in a single eruptive event, as well as daily to weekly trends in persistent volcanic activity. The latest version, SATSUMA-II, also enables control of sampling parameters remotely by e-mail commands. Durability of the apparatus is high: our prototypes worked for several months, in rainy and typhoon seasons, at windy and humid locations, and under strong sunlight. We have been successful in collecting ash samples emitted from Showa crater almost everyday for more than 4 years (2008–2012) at Sakurajima volcano in southwest Japan.
KeywordsVolcanic ash Automatic sampling Time series data Multidisciplinary monitoring
Development of ash sampling apparatus has not been successful without help of staffs of Technical Division, Faculty of Science, Tohoku University. Observation at Sakurajima has been carried out under the strong support of Sakurajima Volcano Research Center, Kyoto University. The manuscript has been highly improved by fruitful comments and pieces of advice by Jacopo Taddeucci, Daniele Andronico, and Maurizio Ripepe. We thank all of them. This work was supported by DPRI, Kyoto University (general collaboration research 21G-12) and by MEXT/JSPS KAKENHI grant number 18740332 and grant number 24710203 (Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B)).
- Anderson AT, Brown GG (1993) CO2 contents and formation pressures of some Kilauean melt inclusions. Am Mineral 78:794–803Google Scholar
- Dellino P, Gudmundsson MT, Larsen G, Mele D, Stevenson JA, Thordarson T, Zimanowski B (2012) Ash from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland): fragmentation processes and aerodynamic behavior. J Geophys Res 117, B00C04. doi: 10.1029/2011JB008726
- Ishihara K (1990) Pressure sources and induced ground deformation associated with explosive eruptions at an andesitic volcano: Sakurajima volcano, Japan. In: Ryan MP (ed) Magma transport and storage. Wiley, New York 335–356Google Scholar
- Kagoshima Local Meteorological Observatory (2012) Monthly weather report of Kagoshima Prefecture. (In Japanese)Google Scholar
- Lockwood JP, Hazlett RW (2010) Volcanoes: global perspectives. Wiley-Blackwell, New York, pp. 552Google Scholar
- Newhall C (2000) Volcano warnings. In: Sigurdsson H (ed) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic, New York, pp 1185–1197Google Scholar
- Nogami K, Hirabayashi J, Ohba T, Ossaka J, Yamamoto M, Akagi S, Ozawa T, Yoshida M (2001) Temporal variations in the constituents of volcanic ash and adherent water-soluble components in the Unzen Fugendake eruption during 1990–1991. Earth Planets Space 53:723–730Google Scholar
- Shimano T, Iida A, Yoshimoto M, Yasuda A, Nakada S (2005) Petrological characteristics of the 2004 eruptive deposits of Asama volcano, Central Japan. Bull Volcanol Soc Jpn 50:315–332 (In Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
- Taddeucci J, Pompilio M, Scarlato P (2002) Monitoring the explosive activity of the July-August 2001 eruption of Mt. Etna (Italy) by ash characterization. Geophys Res Lett 29. doi: 10.1029/2001GL014372
- Yokoo A, Iguchi M, Tameguri T, Yamamoto K (2013) Processes prior to outbursts of vulcanian eruption at Showa crater of Sakurajima volcano. Bull Volcanol Soc Japan 58:163–181Google Scholar
- Yoshimoto M, Shimano T, Nakada S, Koyama E, Tsuji H, Iida A, Kurokawa M, Okayama Y, Nonaka M, Kaneko T, Hoshizumi H, Ishizuka Y, Furukawa R, Nogami K, Onizawa S, Niihori K, Sugimoto T, Nagai M (2005) Mass estimation and characteristics of ejecta from the 2004 eruption of Asama volcano. Bull Volcanol Soc Jpn 50:519–533 (In Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar