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Bulletin of Volcanology

, 75:764 | Cite as

Structure of regional dykes and local cone sheets in the Midhyrna-Lysuskard area, Snaefellsnes Peninsula (NW Iceland)

  • Alessandro Tibaldi
  • Fabio Luca Bonali
  • Federico Aligi Pasquaré
  • Derek Rust
  • Alessandro Cavallo
  • Alessandro D’Urso
Research Article

Abstract

This paper provides the first detailed structural description of 48 vertical dykes, 384 inclined sheets and two large intrusions and the geometry (strike, dip direction and dip) of 1116 fractures in the central area of the Snaefellsnes peninsula, NW Iceland. Our data show a more complex setting than that depicted by the WNW-ESE en-echelon trend of the volcanic structures at the surface. In the Miocene basement lavas, dykes dominantly strike N50–100°E whereas other directions are also present with a higher dispersion. Two main swarms of centrally dipping sheets have also been recognized, focussing towards two areas. Sheet dips range from 2 to 75° with the higher frequency between 10 and 45°. In section view, there is no systematic variation of sheet dip with distance from the focus area. Gabbro and granophyre laccoliths are present in the studied area but cross-cutting relations indicate that most of the inclined sheets are younger. Comparison with regional tectonics suggests that the N50–80°E-striking dykes are coherent with emplacement under the stress field of the pre-6 Ma Snaefellsnes Rift dominated by a NNW-SSE-directed least principal stress (σ3). The N80–100°E dykes and the late Quaternary WNW-trending sub-aerial volcanic features are instead consistent with the development of a more recent E-W, right-lateral shear zone affecting the Snaefellsnes peninsula. Coherent sets of fractures have also been found. Within the inclined sheet swarms, the stress tensor rotated in response to an excess magma pressure linked to two underlying magma chambers of lobate shape, located at an estimated depth of about 400 and 500 m below sea level. This local magmatic stress also produced the centrally inclined fracture swarms that have been found in this area.

Keywords

Iceland Snaefellsnes Dyke Inclined sheet Tectonics Magma chamber 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This is a contribution to the International Lithosphere Program Task Force II “Volcanoes and society: environment, health and hazards”. The Authors are grateful to Andrea Villan, Luca Corti and Luca Fumagalli for field cooperation. Claudia Corazzato is acknowledged for her insights and comments to the 3D structural model. Agust Gudmundsson and an anonymous reviewer are acknowledged for their insightful comments and suggestions to the previous version of the manuscript.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alessandro Tibaldi
    • 1
  • Fabio Luca Bonali
    • 1
  • Federico Aligi Pasquaré
    • 2
  • Derek Rust
    • 3
  • Alessandro Cavallo
    • 1
  • Alessandro D’Urso
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of Milan-BicoccaMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Theoretical and Applied SciencesInsubria UniversityVareseItaly
  3. 3.Centre for Applied Geoscience, School of Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of PortsmouthPortsmouthUK

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