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Bulletin of Volcanology

, 75:753 | Cite as

Magma emplacement into the Lemptégy scoria cone (Chaîne Des Puys, France) explored with structural, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and Paleomagnetic data

  • M. S. PetronisEmail author
  • A. Delcamp
  • B. van Wyk de Vries
Research Article

Abstract

The Lemptégy volcano is a small monogenetic scoria cone located in the Chaîne des Puys, Auvergne, France, which erupted about 32,000 years ago. A first edifice (Lemptégy 1) formed during a trachybasalt eruption as a group of satellite vents of the Puy de Gouttes scoria cone. A second trachyandesitic edifice (Lemptégy 2) formed soon after and completely covered Lemptégy 1 with an 80-m-high breached cone. Since 1946, the Lemptégy volcano has been quarried for scoria and today offers unprecedented three-dimensional exposure of the subvolcanic plumbing system. To map the internal flow architecture of the plumbing system and to study the subvolcanic deformation of Lemptégy 2, structural mapping, petrographic observations, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), rock magnetic, and paleomagnetic data were collected. Field structural mapping and thin section study of tension gashes, Riedel shears, striations as well as ductile shear zones and bubbles allow the direction and sense of the magma flow to be determined. Twenty AMS sites were established in ten dikes (one to four sites in each dike) with 504 specimens analyzed and 479 specimens used to infer magma flow patterns. Structural data, the maximum susceptibility axis (K 1), and the imbrication of the magnetic foliation (K 1K 2) planes indicate both upward and downward sense of flow, as well as flow toward and away from the central vent. Rock magnetic experiments reveal that a cubic Fe–Ti oxide phase, likely low-Ti titanomagnetite, is the principal magnetic phase carrying both the remanence and anisotropy. Paleomagnetic data from some sites yield statistically distinct, at the 95 % confidence level, remanence directions while at other sites the data are indistinguishable at the 95 % confidence level. The paleomagnetic results, observed steeply tilted scoria layers, internal unconformities, and faults show that as each dike was emplaced, it displaced earlier dikes evidencing subvolcanic deformation. The Lemptégy 2 volcano shares similarities in terms of inferred eruption style and structures with other scoria cones, such as Cerro Negro (Nicaragua), and thus provides an excellent field laboratory to investigate active scoria cones world-wide.

Keywords

Monogenetic volcano Scoria cone construction Lemptégy volcano Microstructures Rock magnetism Paleomagnetism Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Partial support provided by the National Geographic grants-in-aid-of research (8106-06), BP-Clermont International Visiting Professor Award (Petronis et al. 2004), and the support from all the personnel at the Lemptegy volcano (http://www.volvic-tourisme.com/HTML/sites/volcan_de_lemptegy_gb.htm) are acknowledged. The authors also acknowledge the efforts of the associate editor and an anonymous reviewer for constructive comments on the manuscript. Observations at Cerro Negro were done with Pedro Perez “El Caminante” while working with INETER. LiDAR image used for figures was generated by Stéphane Petit at GEOLAB UMR6042 at http://www.veodis-3d.com.

Supplementary material

445_2013_753_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (615 kb)
Fig. A-1. Continuous low-field susceptibility versus temperature measurements from room temperature to 700 °C allows for an evaluation of the magnetic mineral composition based on Curie point estimates and assisted with revealing mixtures of magnetic phases within a sample. Curie points were estimated using either the inflection point (Tauxe 1998) or Hopkinson peak methods (Moskowitz 1981). Pure magnetite has a Curie point of 580 °C, which decrease near linearly with increasing Ti substitution to approximately −150 °C for pure ilmenite. Curie points of other common minerals include hematite (675°), prrhotite (320°), and greigite (∼330 °C) (Dunlop and Özdemir 1997). The Ti content of the titanomagnetite phases range from x = 0.258 to x = 0.014 following Akimoto (1962). All samples yield a slight increase in susceptibility on the cooling curve with inferred Curie points between 421 to 574 °C; temperatures consistent with a moderate to low-Ti Fe–Ti oxide phase; likely titanomagnetite. (PDF 615 kb) (PDF 615 kb)
445_2013_753_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (190 kb)
Fig. A-2. Representative normalized a IRM acquisition and b back-field IRM demagnetization curves. The IRM acquisition curve, and the associated backfield IRM, provide information on both the dominant domain state of the magnetic fraction as well as the composition of the material. For low coercivity phases such as magnetite, MD grains are characterized by steep acquisition with saturation at low applied fields while SD grains require a higher peak-field to reach saturation; with complete saturation by 300 mT. High coercivity phases such as hematite (Fe2O3), pyrrhotite (Fe7S8), and greigite (Fe3S4) do not saturate until well beyond 1.0 T fields. All samples show a narrow spectrum of response with steep acquisition and reach near saturation by 0.30–0.40 T and show no evidence of a high coercivity phase on treatment to maximum applied fields of 2.5 T. The acquisition and backfield curves are characteristic of a cubic phase (magnetite-type curves) of PSD to SD magnetite, and, based on other observations (unblocking temperature spectra during TH of the NRM some titanomaghemite (see Fig. 6). (PDF 189 kb)
445_2013_753_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (337 kb)
Fig. A-3. Modified Lowrie–Fuller test (Johnson et al. 1975) that compares AF demagnetization response of NRM, ARM, and SIRM. The test is based on the experimental observation that normalized AF demagnetization curves of weak- (i.e., NRM and ARM) and strong-field TRM (i.e., SIRM) have different relationships for SD and MD grains of magnetite. For MD grains, SIRM requires larger destructive fields than ARM and for SD, SIRM < ARM. Of the eight dike samples analyzed, six yield curves with the ARM more resistant than SIRM indicating a SD to PSD grain size while the remaining two dike sample (LG2 and LG5) yield curves were the SIRM > ARM indicating a prevalence of a MD grain size fraction. (PDF 336 kb)
445_2013_753_MOESM4_ESM.pdf (176 kb)
Fig. A-4. Low-temperature low-field susceptibility experiments on warming from 77 K to room temperature. Normalized reciprocal magnetic susceptibility (K/K o) as a function of temperature where K = susceptibility at temperature (T; in degrees Celsius) and K o = susceptibility at 25 °C. An ideal ferromagnetic curve would show no change in susceptibility with temperature, ideal paramagnetic curves are a straight line described by the Curie–Weiss law (K para = C/T − α where C = Curie constant, α = paramagnetic Curie temperature; T = temperature in Kelvin). All samples show little to no temperature dependence on susceptibility indicating that the magnetic material controlling the AMS is a ferromagnetic mineral phase. (PDF 175 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. S. Petronis
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Delcamp
    • 2
  • B. van Wyk de Vries
    • 3
  1. 1.Environmental Geology, Natural Resources Management DepartmentNew Mexico Highlands UniversityLas VegasUSA
  2. 2.Department of GeographyVrije Universiteit BrusselBrusselsBelgium
  3. 3.Laboratoire Magmas et VolcansUniversity of Blaise PascalClermont-FerrandFrance

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